While making observations of coil designs that have been used over the centuries, I noticed only those that showed some perceived useful results were kept in the arsenal of the scientists, the rest were either ignored or forgotten. There are two basic types and a 3rd being the combination:
1 Circular – Eg Solenoid, flat spiral,spherical, toroidal, mobius
2 Non-circular – Eg Basket weave, geometric, polyhedral, star forms, mobius
The circular types have 3 basic types a resultant 4th and the unique 5th type:
1 Rings adding vertically – Solenoid Coil
2 Rings expanding diametrically – Flat spiral
3 Rings adding in a circular form – Toroidal
4 Rings adding vertically and/or diametrically and/or circular
a) Conical – differing sizes in both direction
b) Multilayer Solenoid – same sizes vertically + differing sizes diametrically
c) Multilayer Flat Spiral – same coils sizes vertically + adding vertically
d) Toroidal and Poloidal windings mixed sizes vertically + differing sizes diametrically
e) Spherical rotations windings mixed sizes radially + differing sizes diametrically
5 Winding folding into itself, creating a single surface – all possible geometries – Mobuis
The shapes of coils are one aspect the other is the winding order and direction, thus creating multiple poles, cross coupling inductance, retarding or increasing both the inductance and the capacitance as the design requires, the addition of the mobius windings diversifies the basic options, this is where the art is at in 2012. A good example of combining many geometries and winding types is the:
Magnetic coil(1820 Hans Christian Oersted)
Faraday coil(1831 Micheal Faraday)
Henry coil(1831 Joesph Henry)
Induction coil(1836 Nickolas Callan)
Ruhmkorff coil(1851 Heinrich Ruhmkorff)
Helmholtz coil(1869 Herman von Helmholtz)
Maxwell coil(1873 James Maxwell)
Cook coil(1871 Daniel Cook)
Tesla coil 1/4 wave(1891 Nicola Tesla)
Tesla Flat coil(1890 Nicola Tesla)
Tesla Bifilar coil(1894 Nicola Tesla)
Hubbard coil(1918 Alfred Hubbard)
O’Leary Coil(1920 William O’Leary)
Hendershot coil(1928 Lester Hendershot)
Interceptor coil(1946 John Wiegand)
Tokamak coil(1950 Oleg Lavrentiev)
Stellartator coil(1950 Lyman Spitzer)
Smith coil(1952 Wilber Smith)
Fusor coil(1964 Philo Farnsworth)
Hooper coil(1968 William Hooper)
Rodin coil(1986 Marco Rodin)
Biaxial Poloid coil(1990 Bo Atkinson)
Tetra Helix coil(1991 Bo Atkinson)
Vortex coil(1992 Ken Gailey)
Double Helix coil(TM) (2007 AML)
Not to mention my own explorations in coil geometry with:
Mandela coil(1990 Arto Heino) – Page 55 – Link
Crown coil(1994/2011 Arto Heino) – Link
Infinty coil(1993/2011 Arto Heino) – Link
- and many toroidal/polyhedral mixtures that have been popping up regularly with names like the Star ship coil, Loohan coil, Polish coil, Big Secret coil, some of these are marvels of artistry and human innovation.
Not to mention the many non inductive windings that are used as resistances. This has been looked at for at least 200 years, Nicola Tesla was one engineer/Scientist who’s original thinking left a legacy of numerous winding geometries he used to design his motors and coils,one of these is his Bifilar design. This design exposed a unique addition to the idea of combining the merits of both coil and capacitor without addition hardware contrivances, the anti-series winding nulls out self-inductance.
Nicola Tesla writes that a standard coil of 1000 turns with a potential of 100 volts across it will have a difference of 0.1 volt between turns.
100/1000 = 0.1
A similar bifilar coil will have a potential of 50 volts between turns.
100/2 = 50
In that the stored energy is a function of the square of the voltages, the ratio of energy in the bifilar to a standard coil will be
50^2/0.1^2 = 2500/0.01 = 250000
Which as stated by Tesla, “the energy stored is 250000 times greater than the standard coil!”
The storage of energy when pulsing a bifilar coil is n amount more than a standard solenoid/flat coil, as Tesla stated and gave you the formula to engineer this type of coil, we should be incorporating this simple idea into many everyday devices. I have drawn a few design methodologies that I hope will spur this well known innovation into more interesting directions.
These are basic bifilar solenoid configuration showing the capacitance between each winding. The windings can be rearranged in a different order to change the amount of induction and capacitance you put into the coil. The winding below shows what can be done to rearrange the capacitive differential to increase the energy storage.
The graphic table below shows how many different arrangements that can be used with a Quadrifilar coil system, each will give a different result for the inductance, capacitance and its resonant frequency spectrum.
A great science/engineering project or University paper for someone would be to tabulate and analyze each arrangement, you might just get your doctorate on this.
The flat coil is a dimension less than the solenoid and a lot easier to redefine into multi-filar arrangements.
The basic geometries involved in designing coils, transformers and bifilar systems must have a few design rules so the engineering of these items become straight forward and adaptable to the needs of the energy transformations. Here are a few simple systems that can be easily expanded and used creatively.
The cipher I am using here is:
B = Blue R = Red
U = Upper L = Lower
N = North S = South / is the upper part of the cross
E = East W = West \ is the upper part of the cross
The order of the letters is the order from the top to the bottom.
The order of the numbers is from the left to the right.
The first set is based on 2 simple loops. This will give you 8 different forms:
The next is the topology of a single loop of wire which loops on itself, like a bifilar or just a plain solenoid:
As you can see by these configurations, the standard engineering practice used in industry only use a small portion of these geometries. Now if you loop 2 coils as used in transformers you will see industry only apply 1 or 2 of these geometries in 98% of all transformers.
The fusing of Adams motor and the Tesla bifilar coil was one of the first iterations that showed me the correctness of this approach by its exceptional efficiency.
Incorporating both bifilar and loop transformations as shown previously, you can begin to appreciate the transformations I have below to create a magic square coil, as originally shown on my Artoworld website in 1999.
Most of the original readers of these documents never understood my topology in 1999, even though I built many of these coil constructs as stators for pulsed motors. The current breed of experimenter has less inhibitions to these geometric forms. The first arrangement is the non-magic numeric sequence, just the same as if you wrap a standard solenoid.
The next diagram is the magic square arrangement, which utilizes the the pairing of the “17” as a magic square paring which translates to the bifilar pairing.
Below is the original stator coil I wound in 1999, it performed well and required high voltage(24v) and low current(0.001 amp).
I hope this small extract from my upcoming book “Talking with the Birds” will be helpful in any research you might be doing. Regards Arto
I have had a request to explain the Tesla/Adams Bifilar setup, here is a diagram that should make it transparent. The consequence of using this way of connecting coils will give you a multitude of possibilities for the experimenter to find interesting combinations , have fun regards Arto.
Thanks to Andy I have added one more diagram to help decipher my Magic Square Coil arrangements.
*** Update ***
Added the Spiral coil implementation.
For the continuation of this blog go to : http://artojh.wordpress.com/2013/06/05/magic-square-coil-technology/
Or buy my book at Amazon.com