The Democracy of Battery Charging

May 17, 2015

by Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2015

(This is still in a preliminary stage of writing for a chapter in my next Volume, please excuse any errors)

I originally chose to call it “The Battery Charging Switching Method (BCSM)”, but due to a clear reasoning I renamed it. Each battery in turn is used to power the load and all the differences between batteries are constantly harmonized and balanced while using the differences as outputs for creative applications. Now if we could only run a real government using these principals we really would have something happily called democracy, at the moment what they call democracy is a painted mask hiding the oligarchs who glean there riches from the public under the guise of true government. This is the same as using willing slaves to turn the cranks of generators to power the load of one single machine that return no excess power back to the prime movers energy stores, to help recharge them, just in case the prime movers decide to build up its own energy reserves and maybe divert any excess to improving efficiency and lower the cost of distribution, this is pure heresy to the pyramidal control structure.

I was fascinated by the announcement back in the 90’s of a Tesla Switch, I decided to investigate, I found no credible source for the name Tesla for this scheme anywhere, so I dismissed the title and looked at the circuit. First I noticed the whole scheme needed either a mechanical , rotary or electronic driving mechanism, so the switching had to use power to activate. Secondly I noticed the load connections had some problem with the simple fact that the use of polarized capacitors in a possible oscillating system, this was interesting as the load was connected to the negative rail on both capacitors. Ignoring these issues, I had to stretch my imagination to include differentials of polarizations on either side of the system might account for a charge pushing through the load. Yes I could see if you swapped the batteries from 12v single to 12v parallel you would develop a differential if either battery was not exactly equal in charge, this was the first inkling that this was not completely bogus.

I began analyzing this simple switching system and found this as my first breakdown.

Tesla Switch (Brandt)

It looks like the original switching scheme was meant to drive a load between two earth rails, as this is not a design that would be advantageous to the whole idea of recharging the batteries and drive a load, I would need to see if the charging battery idea is worthy of its implication as scheme of merit.

Here I have the switching idea of Benitiz, and I must say his understanding of this is worthy of his patent.

Benitiz Battery Charger

As you can witness, Benitiz’s idea that by a simply putting 2 batteries in series and 2 batteries in parallel is a way of increasing the voltage in the parallel set 12v with the higher 24v of the series set, where the amperage capability has increased with the parallel set and with the difference in potential increased in the series set while and the internal resistance has been reduced in parallel and increased in series. Let us break this down into different types of analogs:

Audio frequency of tubes

– The resonant frequency decreases when two pipes are in series, where air current flow capability is the same and decreases due to greater frictional surface area
– The resonant frequency stays the same when two pipes are in parallel, where air current flow capability increases with the resistance also reduced as the volume increases greater than the resistive surface area.

In this case, the parallel system will develop a greater differential and an increase of air current volume, which could be translated into an volume flow transducers, thus moving energy out of the system by a translational device.
The parallel system uses a longitudinal pressure wave where the volume increase in the direction of flow and there is also resistance against the body of the tube which has greater increases in the serial version and is due to the surface area in contact with the vibrating air.

Sound - Series Parallel

Pressure of water in tubes connected

– Pressure increases when two pipes are in series (elevation differential), where water current flow rate capability decreases and greater frictional surface area decreases the flow
– Pressure stays the same in parallel, where current flow capability increases

In this case, the parallel system will develop a smaller differential but an increase of water current volume, which could be translated into an volume flow transducers, thus moving energy out of the system by a translational device.
The parallel system uses a pressure bow where the volume increase in the direction of flow and there is also resistance against the body of the pipe which has greater increases in the serial version and is due to the greater surface area in contact with the water.

Water- Series Parallel
EMF of Batteries in Series and Parallel

Battery Circuits
Circuit 1 – Batteries in Series

The current Ig through the resistance R3 in circuit 1


V = I x R
I = V / R


V = EMF1 + EMF2 = I x R

When you have resistors in series you add the values together:


EMF1 + EMF2 = Ig x (R1 + R2 + R3)


Ig = (EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3)



R1 = 270 ohms
R2 = 230 ohms
R3 = 940 ohms
EMF1 = 12 volts
EMF2 = 3 volts


Ig = (12 + 3) / (270+230+940) = 15 / 1440 = 0.0104166 Amps



R1 = 2.7 ohms
R2 = 2.3 ohms
R3 = 9.4 ohms
EMF1 = 12 volts
EMF2 = 4 volts


Ig = (12 + 4) / (2.7+2.3+7.5) = 16 / 12.5 = 1.28 Amps

Circuit 1b – Batteries in Parallel , End Load

Using Kirchoff’s Loop Rule

Where all possible loops that are valid can circulate
Loop 1 = b -> a -> x < -c <- d (This Loop is incomplete)

This is an unusual combination, even though EMF11 will become in equilibrium with EMF12, the actual load is a bridge conductor. This mean this load will in fact function but of a very small current differential.

Example 1a:


R11 = 3 ohm
R12 = 3 ohm
R13 = 8 ohm
EMF11 = 12 volts
EMF12 = 11.75 volts

Ih = R11 / EMF11
= 3 / 12
= 0.25

Ij = R12 / EMF12
= 3 / 11.75
= 0.255319

Thus the current in the load is

Iload = Ij – Ih
= 0.05319

by deduction we can also say

R13 = EMF13 / Iload


EMF13 = R 13 x Iload
= 8 x 0.05319
= 0.04255 volts

This easily shows Kirchoff ‘s loop rule must also include the loops that arrive from two sources that are not the same, allowing a current to flow due to the nature of unequal equipotentials. This means we must first show the currents of each half loop then by subtraction leaving the differential, which should also be divided by 2 because the current will share the remainder with both current sources.

This also means that an additional Law must be applied to resolve this type of differential loop.

The Third Law – Only implies the incomplete differential loops.

Ij – Ih – ( EMF13/R13 ) = 0                Eq0

Circuit 2 – Batteries in Parallel

Using Kirchoff’s Loop Rule

Where all possible loops that are valid can circulate

Loop 1 = a -> d -> e -> f then back to a (This Loop is invalid)
Loop 2 = a -> b -> c -> d then back to a
Loop 3 = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f then back to a

The First Law

Ic – Ib – Ia = 0                                  Eq1

The Second Law

This implies to Loop2

EMF4 – ( R6 x Ic) – (R5 x Ib) = 0        Eq2

This implies to Loop3

EMF3 – ( R4 x Ia) – (R6 x Ic) = 0         Eq3

and rearranging Eq2

EMF4 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R5 x Ib) = EMF5
EMF4 – ( R5 x Ib) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF6
EMF4 = (R5 x Ib) + (R6 x Ic)

and rearranging Eq3

EMF3 – ( R4 x Ia) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF7
EMF3 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R4 x Ia) = EMF8
EMF3 = ( R4 x Ia) + (R6 x Ic)

Also rearranging Eq1

Ic = Ia + Ib

There are 2 current branches


Ia = EMF3 – EMF6 / R4


Ib = EMF4 – EMF6 / R4


Ic = (EMF3 – EMF6 / R4) + (EMF4 – EMF6) / R5)

To conclude


R5 = R4




Ic = (2 x EMF3 – 2 x EMF6) / R4


Ic * R4 = 2 x EMF3 – 2 x EMF6
R4 = (2 x EMF3 – 2 x EMF6) / Ic


R4 = ((2 x EMF3)/ Ic) – (2 x R6)
(2 x EMF3)/Ic = R4 + 2 x R6
2 x EMF3 = Ic x (R4 + 2 x R6)
Ic = 2 x EMF3 / (R4 + 2 x R6)


Ic = 2 x EMF3 / (R4 + 2 x R6)

Also for the invalid loop1 we must use Eq1 to see what differential circulates between these 2 EMF’s, you will have to include another load R45 between R4 and R5 at e and d.

If using the 3rd law

Ia – Ib – ( EMF34/R45 ) = 0               Eq0


Iload = Ia – Ib


EMF34 = R45 x Iload

This can now be treated as an additional EMF depending on the direction of current, eg if Ia>Ib or Ib>Ia.


EMF3 = 12 V
EMF4 = 9 V
R4 = 100 ohms
R5 = 50 ohms
R6 = 2500 ohms
Ia = 0.0213579 amps
Ib = – 0.0173684 amps
Ic = Ia + Ib = 0.0394737 amps             Eq1
EMF4 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R5 x Ib) = EMF5
9 – (2500 x Ic) = 50 x Ib

rearrange then
Ib = (9 – (2500 x Ic)) / 50

Also if
EMF4 = (R5 x Ib) + (R6 x Ic)
= (50 x Ib) + (2500 x Ic)
= 9 volts

EMF4 – ( R5 x Ib) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF6
9 – (50 x Ib) = 2500 x Ic

Rearrange then
Ic = (9 – (50 x Ib)) / 2500
then by Eq1
Ia + Ib = (9 – (50 x Ib)) / 2500
Rearrange then
Ia = (9 – (50 x Ib)) / 2500) – Ib

and rearranging Eq3

EMF3 – ( R4 x Ia) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF7
12 – (100 x Ia) = 2500 x Ic

Rearrange then
Ic = (12 – (100 x Ia)) / 2500
then by Eq1
Ia + Ib = (12 – (100 x Ia)) / 2500
Rearrange then
Ib = (12 – (100 x Ia)) / 2500) – Ia

EMF3 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R4 x Ia) = EMF8
12 – (2500 x Ic) = 100 x Ia

Rearrange then

Ia = (12 – (2500 x Ic)) / 100
then by Eq1
Ic – Ib = (12 – (2500 x Ic)) / 100
Rearrange then
Ib = -1 x ((12 – (2500 x Ic)) / 100) – Ic)

Also if
EMF3 = ( R4 x Ia) + (R6 x Ic)
= (100 x Ia) +(2500 x Ic)
= 12 volts

The power dissipated by R3 for circuit 1


EMF1 = 12 V
EMF2 = 12 V
R1 = 100 ohms
R2 = 50 ohms
R3 = 2500 ohms

and if Power is Pa

Pa = I^2 x R

and I is

Ia = (EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3)
= 0.0090566


Pa = [(EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3)]^2 x R3

The power dissipated of R3 using values

Pa = [(EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3]^2 x R2
= [( 12 + 12 ) / (100 + 50 + 2500)]^2 * 2500
= [24 / 2650]^2 * 2500
= 0.205


EMF1 = 12 V
EMF2 = 12 V
R1 = 100 ohms
R2 = 100 ohms
R3 = 200 ohms
R4 = 200 ohms
R5 = 200 ohms
R6 = 200 ohms

For what ratio of R1 and R2 would power dissipated by the resistor of resistance R2 be the same for circuit A and circuit B?

As long as the voltage and current are the same, the power will be the same if the resistors are equal. So the answer is, so long as:


EMF1 = EMF2 = EMF3 = EMF4


(R1 + R2) / R3 = 1                                                       Eq4
[(R4 x R5)/( R4 + R5)]/ R6 = 1                                      Eq5

Circuit 3 – Batteries in Series and Parallel

Using Kirchoff’s Loop Rule

Where all possible loops that are valid and can circulate

Loop 1 = a -> d -> e -> f then back to a
Loop 2 = a -> b -> c -> d then back to a
Loop 3 = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f then back to a

The First Law

Id – Ie – If = 0                                                         Eq6 4

The Second Law

This implies to Loop1

EMF9 – EMF10 – ( R8 x Ie) – (R7 x Id) = 0                 Eq7 5

This implies to Loop2

EMF10 – ( R9 x If) – (R8 x Ie) = 0                              Eq8 6

This implies to Loop3

EMF9 – ( R9 x If) – (R7 x Id) = 0                                Eq9 7

When 2 batteries are put in parallel they will try to equalize the total charge that is available, thus a 11v connected to a 13v theoretically should equalize to 12v. This is the technology of of Ron Brant and others, where battery switching technology is not a mysterious or esoteric topic in engineering as it may seem, but due its uncommon applications it has developed in to a wild “free energy from the vacuum” cult following. This has happened over a 30 year period, saying this, it is still an interesting and unexplored territory and should be given some credence to evaluate possible parametric additions to the flow rate between these cells. This is where Kirchoffs invalid current loops become valid which now can be translated to include another branch that can be added from an outside environmental circuit, regardless if the basic layout are completely valid, thus giving a perfectly reasonable validation for external energy coupling. The anomalous readings that the researchers sometimes encounters when making experimental circuits can easily be included as differential current movements, this sometimes happens in some simple circuits when the environment has EMF leakage currents that circulate from power systems, through bad earths or inductive couplings when metal components contain eddy currents.
So when Tesla made his simple and accurate discovery that “all energy is received from the external environment”, it becomes validated once again. Thanks for reading regards Arto.

Live Chalk Art at Creative Paddington

March 8, 2015

A great day for all, especially those who joined in the chalking action. The morning began with some dark foreboding clouds, making it a possible washout. It started to rain as I arrived on the street adjoining the Primary School and Paddington Markets, not a good sign. I patiently waited for the rain to stop and met with Nick Vickers from the UNSW Arts and Design, the Market organizer and the Face Painting girls, while the play grounds dried. Nick represented the UNSW Arts and Design, ACP(Australian Center for Photography) and the Metro Screen as well, which are part of UNSW, the event was also sponsored by Sydney City Council, Art Month and ESC.

The rain set my schedule behind by 2 hours, not much time to complete any detailed rendering as planned, so I opted for the basic chalking, this wasn’t a problem as the young chalkers were already filling in the frames I left for them.

What began as a rainy, cloudy affair ended in a warm and sunny day for all the participating chalkers that came in ages from 4 years old to 70 years old, it became a fun and creative mayhem, as you can see by all the drawings. The final leg of the journey home had me going in circles for about a half an hour, as the police redirected traffic because of the Mardi-Gras.

The first picture shows what started mildly ended in a creative chaos of chalking.


In the second picture, all was quite until I walked across the road, then all hell broke loose, kids everywhere and a fellow group of musicians had found their live gig location for playing.


The final picture, I was running out of time so I reduced it to 1.5 meters square and gave it some coloured radiated bars, this seem to get all the passers-by to turn into chalkers.


Thanks from Arto.

Quadrifilar Coil

November 17, 2014

As I am editing my second edition of volume one and the second volume, I am finding small errors that need to be corrected. The picture on my blog Multifilar can easily be replaced, but my book has been in print for a year, so I am including the file replacement and an additional file that will be in my second volume. The second picture has a very important visual aid for those who are designing transformers or resonant circuits, it has the layout so you can see the mutual inductance of each winding, a very simple but effective aid.

Here is the replacement file:

Quadri Filar Coil options V#2Here is the additional file:

Quadrifilar Mutual Coils


Halloween Chalk Art Day 3

October 30, 2014

A great day, I started with the main draw of “The Witches Haunted House”, I really enjoyed this one, it reminds me of all the old creepy houses I drew when I was young. The day was preceding with the usual warm and friendly Drummoyne local greeting of “Great work”, “Love The Chalking” and the kids were very excited about seeing the haunted house, one little boy even told his mum the story of the witches house. Then a car pulled over and the lady waved to me, she had taken my chalks thinking it was rubbish pick up, she was distraught with guilt and very regretful, she realized it was my drawing chalks when she had seen the work on the street corners. I was beyond happy and thanked her very much for restoring my faith in the kindnesses that still exists in human nature. She was relived at finding me and I asked her name, not knowing how to spell it, it sounded just like the Finnish word for sing “Laulaa”, this was amazing and I bid farewell letting her know all was OK and forgiven, no harm intended, she left very happy to have returned my chalks, people can be so wonderful.

The next draw was “Look A Skull”, this was fast paced as I had more street corners to draw with warning signs for the kids walking around knocking on doors on Halloween. I improvised the rest of the signs, while all the passing kids cheered me on, also a “Duff Duff” car went past with a dude in sunglasses stuck his thumb up and said “Cool Man”. A terrific outcome with Stephanie and Canada Bay Council being the sponsor, these guys are great they really listen to their residence, apparently 1500 kids will be knocking on doors tomorrow. Thanks for following my 3 day journey, I hope you enjoyed it as much as i did, regards Arto.

The Witches Haunted House

Look A Skull



Halloween Chalk Art Day 2

October 29, 2014

A great start for the day, the first location was in front of an abandoned factory, very spooky. I pulled out all my chalk gear to realize I left a tray of my essentials rubbing implements at home, time to improvise. I drew the “Pumpkin Ghosts” first, it was a total blast as the locals were impressed by my Halloween Hat. I was given an old tea towel, this was my savior, off I went and worked the chalk with linen.

The next two “Warning Teeth” and “Caution” were fun as the locals had a great laugh at my hat and my antics while I was drawing. The word has got around and all the locals are coming to have a look at the work. A great day, regards Arto.

Pumpkin Ghosts

Warning Teeth


Halloween Chalk Art Day 1

October 28, 2014

The Drummoyne suburb has a lot of federation period homes, well kempt and restored to original condition. the streets are lined with the some very large and old trees, the footpaths are original concrete from around the turn of the century(1900-1920). This made the task of chalking an interesting challenge, the aggregate was multicolored stone pieces quarried from an old river deposit,this was my observation as most of the stones were rounded at the edges, the sand also seemed to be of a coarse grain, definitely not smooth beach sand. The small amount of erosion of the concrete surface was apparent and the corrugations were lined with a dark mossy layer, this gave the concrete a mid to dark gray appearance. This was not an ideal surface, still I love a challenge, I found a way to get the chalk to take regardless.

The first image is the “Look A Ghost” creeping out of the chasm.  I went for a short walk with Stephanie  to view the other sites for chalking, then when I arrived back I found out somebody had pilfered two of my chalk boxes, I learned my lesson very quickly, who can you trust? The local residents I met were wonderful and enjoyed the images, they were looking forward to seeing more pieces in the next couple of day, the kids were very excited to see ghosts and monsters.

So I thought I might have to improvise with the chalks I had left, graciously Stephanie went and bought a supply of chalk that would get me through the whole gig, thanks for saving the day. The second image “The Watchtower Monster”, was a response to the pilfered chalks, he’s looking pretty scary, the finished picture was bleached with sunlight, sorry about that. The final “Danger Hand” was tougher than it looks, the aggregate was extremely coarse, it was very hard to lay the chalk down.

The first day was a blast, despite the dramas, could have done more, just ran out of time . See you tomorrow regards Arto.

Look A Ghost


The Watchtower Monster


Danger Hand

Drummoyne Halloween Chalk Art

October 27, 2014

Live Chalk Art at Drummoyne Tuesday 28, Wednesday 29th, Thursday 30th, 10am – 4pm , Corners of 1) Day St. 2) Edwin St. 3) Alexandra St. 4 ) Lyons St , Come and See and Say Hello. Regards Arto.

Arto Chalk Art


Map of approximate locations.

Chalk Streets

Live Show

September 28, 2014

I am working towards a lecture and live show with live Painting,Tesla Coils, Poetry, Songs, Sacred Geometry and Free form Jazz….. what more can a man do without exploding on stage.

On my WordPress Blog

My Facebook Page

Tesla Newspaper Articles V

April 30, 2014

Here is a another Tesla articles I came across by accident, thanks to the Library of Congress, regards Arto.


Nikola Tesla and His Perpetual Motion Machine

New York June 25 -The strangest man in this city is unquestionably Nikola Tesla. Within the past fortnight he has astounded scientists the world over by his announcement that he had perfected his wireless telegraphy – in other words that he had sent and received communications between distant points without the use of wires and simply employing the natural energy the earth. Nature, he says, teems with power and motion.

Tesla is a young man. He has just past his fortieth birthday. If he lives 20 years or more and retains his faculties the world will be a different place to live in compared with today. His ideas and projects are so big that it takes time to grasp their real import. He talks as calmly of producing a flash of lightning a mile long as the ordinary man speaks of telegraphing to Chicago. Not long ago in his laboratory he said: ”I expect to live to be able to set a machine in the middle of this room and move it by the energy of no other agency than the medium in motion around us.”

This sounds like the vaporings of a dreamer. It means a perpetual motion machine, and that, in itself, is enough to stamp Tesla, in the minds of ordinary men as a full-fledged visionary.

But Tesla is the very acme of practicality in all things except money making. If he wished he could be a millionaire five times over. As it is, there are dozens of ordinary mechanics within a mile of his laboratory who could buy and sell him six times over. “If every man.” said Tesla, “who uses my machine in electro-terafy alone would give me a quarter of a dollar, I would be very wealthy. I have never received a dollar for it, and there is no way in which I could.

Tesla is I strange in all things. He will talk willingly about electrical inventions of the past, present and future, but it is like drawing teeth to him to say a word about himself. He has a genuine distaste for notoriety when Tesla, the man, is concerned, and politely asks to be let alone.

He ts a Montenegran by birth. His father was a man of unusual mental attainments, and his mother had the inventive genius to a considerable degree. “I am not much of a linguist,” says Tesla. “I speak but six or seven or eight languages. My father spoke 18, and, besides, he was a remarkable mathematician.”

Tesla is tall, thin and lanky, but quick and impulsive in manner and earnest in speech. He is not much of a talker, but every word he utters means something. His head is big and bony and his ears stick out. He is not a handsome man, by any means, but he is impressive. His hair is as black as hair can be, and is coarse and rumpled.

Physically he does not appear to he robust, but he says his constitution is rugged and he can stand almost any strain. In his youth he was a famous wrestler. He went in for all kinds of sport. The Montenegrans are rare gamblers, and Tesla inherited the national love of excitement over the card table. More than once in those days he went through single sittings of 48 hours at a stretch, and then only stopped because the other players had succumbed.

“I know the fascination of play,” he said, “but all the allurements of the game are insipid to me compared with the overmastering excitement of life in the laboratory. No thrill can go through the human frame like that felt by the Inventor as he sees the creation of his brain unfolding to success after months and years of waiting and hoping.” So Tesla does not gamble now, at least, not over the card table. His laboratory supplies all the excitement that his emotion can stand.

Tesla’s father was a clergyman of the Greek church, and it was intended that the son should fit himself for the same life. The idea of entering the ministry was opposed by the boy with such pertinacity that at last his father compromised by agreeing that he should become a professor or mathematics and physics. With that end in view Tesla was sent to the Polytechnic institute at Gratz, and there, in operation, was a gramme dynamo. That simple electrical instrument, the first that he had seen, settled the future calling of Tesla.

Prior to entering the Polytechnic at Gratz he had first attended a public school at Gospich, and later spent three years at the high school in Carstatt, Croatia. It was while he was here that he saw his first steam engine.

Immediately on entering the Polytechnic he began experimenting with electricity, and when his father heard of it there was a stiff family row, but the son came off victor, and instead of taking the course that would have fitted him for a college professorship of mathematics, he studied engineering. The gramme dynamo became his great pet, and while working about it he got the notion that it could be operated without commutator or brushes. This idea he labored over and experimented upon and finally after many years, it resulted in one of his greatest inventions, a rotating field motor.

The world owes a debt of gratitude to the little gramme dynamo, as it instigated the fundamental idea which subsequent elaborations and perfections by Tesla made possible several of the grandest mechanical feats that the world has ever known. When Tesla first came to this country, little I was known of the alternating current, and electrical energy was delivered almost entirely by the continuous current system. This is a successful method for short line work, but where the power is to be transmitted to a considerable distance it is impracticable.

One of Tesla’s inventions, based upon his first idea, was an alternating current motor that permitted the transmission of energy long distances at high pressure over the wires. This invention made possible the bridling of the power in Niagara, and natural forces by its use can be harnessed everywhere. Originally it was thought necessary to employ two wires for the transmission of power – one to convey it and the other to return it. Tesla proved that the second wire was a needless expense and that the energy could be transmitted with one wire with smaller waste than with two.

The bulk of Tesla’s income is derived from his invention in the rotating field, and it is not a large income either. He also receives a small sum from his fathers estate, and these are the sum total of his pecuniary resources. Nine-tenths of this money goes into his laboratory work. He spends next to nothing on himself. He is unmarried. He says an inventor has no business marrying, as the necessary home life would surely interfere with the prosecution of his labors.

From 12 to 18 hours a day he spends in his laboratory. He has no social life. He attended a reception once, was lionized by his hostess and the guests and spent the most unhappy hour of his life. Since then he has avoided social functions with assiduous care.

After leaving the school at Gratz Tesla went to Paris, but he attracted little attention, because his Ideas were then in their infancy and were of such magnificent calibre that the mere mention of them made the leading French electricians regard their originator as a fanciful dreamer. Some friend advised him to come to America. This he did, and, hunting up Thomas A. Edison soon convinced that genius that he was a valuable man to employ.

Tesla’s stay with Edison was brief. He had his own ideas, and, it is believed, they clashed with Edison’s. Tesla has never said much about this. Right here it should be mentioned that the Montenegrans has not the jealousy common among inventors. He never belittles the work of any man, and he has done more for young electricians Just starting out than any other dozen men of his profession.


Tesla Coil Conversations

April 4, 2014

Tesla Coil Conversations

by Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2014

Memories of Tesla and 1000 other coils

Arto and Fred standing in front of a Large Cylindrical Tesla Coil, in the workshop and home laboratory of Arto Heino:

Arto: “Stick your hand in at the base of that big Tesla coil and tell me if the voltage is big”, he said while grinning wryly.
Fred: “No way man, I can see the high voltage at the top, which means I might die, because it is the current that kills”, jumps back while he exclaims, being puzzled by his own instinctive understanding.
Arto: “Well said, how did you figure that out?”
Fred: “Just hanging around you, by watching how you avoid touching the primary and any part down at the base of the coil”

He looks around the workshop and sees lots of different balls sizes and some toroids, he can see that they attach to the top of the Tesla coil.

Fred: “Why have you got that ball on top?”
Arto: “To store the reactive charge into the dielectric around the ball while the dielectric component is reflected at the anti-node and will be transformed back to the magnetic component at the base which is reflected by the node, all this happens during each cycle at its natural frequency and is the due to it’s standing wave resonant structure, which relates to the length of the wire being the quarter of the wave length of its natural frequency, while also adhering to the balance of two components the inductive which is the magnetic component and the capacitive which is the dielectric component at the same frequency,”
Arto: “To simplify they act as polar opposites both have reflections at the opposite node, Magnetic/Node, Dielectric/Anti-node, so simple no complicated explanation necessary. This sort of knowledge makes theoretical and mathematical people nervous.”
Fred: “Wow that changes a my way of thinking, they never told me that at school”
Arto: “I understand, sometimes understanding something is not easy, you have to be able to fail and disappoint yourself to get past those prejudices”

Now they are standing in front of a bench with lots of coils, capacitors and power supplies:

Fred: “What’s with that other coil, there is no sparks or ball?”
Arto: “Oh that is a half-wave system, that doesn’t use a reactive transformation like the Tesla Coil. It just swaps between the Voltage/Current transform, but in a nodal resonant fashion, by the length of the wire being half the length of the wave length of its natural frequency.”

Fred points to another fancy coil on the bench:

Fred: “That one their has a ball at either end, and a thick primary in the center.”
Arto: “That is another half wave system, but this one also has capacitive reactive exchanges at either end, it acts like two Tesla coils joined at the base.”

Fred walks over and flicks the switch that is labelled “LC circuit”.

Fred: “Then what’s this other one here, it has a Capacitor and Coil, but it sparks are small”
Arto: “That is similar to the Big Tesla Coil, but it only resonates between the reactive components not the nodal structure, the wire length only relates to the amount of turns and an increase in inductance”
Fred: “Oh so you are saying that resonance can be number of exchange devices”

Fred picks up a long cylindrical neon tube and walks over to the Tesla coil:

Fred: “Check out that Neon light when you bring it to the top of the coil”
Arto: “Yes, that is the high charge density around the top capacitance, it affects the neon inside the tube and makes it fluoresce, that’s why they call it a florescent tube”
Fred: “The light is not bright down here”
Arto: “That is because the alternating magnetic component does not affect the neon in the tube, and the dielectric charge density is low just like the voltage but having said that the current density is high”

Now they are standing in front of a industrial neon light fitting, using a multimeter:

Fred: “How come when I measure the small neon transformer here it only shows 120 volts”
Arto: “That’s the voltage just to maintain the florescent activity in the tube, the ignition circuit starts the florescence and is part of the same transformer, it just creates a inductive high voltage charge when the starter switches”

“It is not hard to teach people to look but its takes a lifetime to educate those to see.” – Arto Heino

This could be one  my last post on WordPress, due to slow sales of my book and lack of support for my work, I will be moving my previous posts and they will be only available as PDFs, sorry I given a lot of my work for free and do not know if I can continue with this blog, good luck to all the experimenters and researchers. Regards Arto.


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