The Induction Computer Part 3

July 25, 2017

The Induction Computer – Part 3

by Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2017

From my last entry I hinted at a 555 relay emulation, I am not quite their yet, I am getting close though. Here is my current stage I am on at the present moment.

I needed an ALU to start things of, so I started on the Half-Adder as a building block, here is my iterations.

The next step is the Full-Adder and its first few iterations from Logic Gates.

Lastly I have included a simple idea of how some of these could be interpreted in the 3D world, more to come on this aspect in a future blog.

If your response is high enough, I will start a Patreon account and begin building the real thing, regards Arto.

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The Induction Computer Part 2

July 8, 2017

The Induction Computer – Part 2

by Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2017

It looks like I am reinventing the wheel, minus valves and transistors, this work might even seem redundant to some of the techno-nerds. I assure you this is a step forward, there has been no time in the last 50 years that all those electronic enthusiasts have been able to simplify and create something without an official corporately designed IC package doing all your brain-work for you, leaving nothing for your own original imagination. I was very excited many years ago when many hobbyists made their own computers from discreet transistors and IC packages, while a few even made some relay ALUs.

While I thought of making my own CPU from relays but resisted, I first needed to create a new architecture that could incorporate an open 256 bit CPU and a Analog CPU  in one package, while still accessible enough to be built by hand. This was part of my goal, as the architecture had to be robust, to last 1000 years, the components were to be the built environment and the power to drive it should be available 24/7, sounds like a pipe dream of some mad scientist. I only dare to dream of its reality and decided to rediscover the simplicity and the basic technology to make it plausible. The idea of using stone to contain the complex logical matrix that can be accessed via simple interfaces is the final reality, the many steps to arrive at that outcome might outstrip my lifetime, still I will persist, as I cannot dismiss a vision that is clear and within the realms of possibility.

Enough of my machinations, here are some interesting and practically solved devolutions of known devices from my last posting. Here is a FlipFlop made from two relay NAND gates.

While the idea of a Operational Amplifier kept me awake for a night of two, I hope to emulate a 555 IC chip from my work here, just in time to compete a chapter in my Volume II.

This version should satisfy many of its Integrated Chip operations, still it is a crude and very fundamental design, useful to be expanded upon with a bit more work. I must repeat, I am not an electrical engineer and I have no degree from any University, I  am truly a ground up natural scientist, where my tenets of understanding come from a life time of artistic creativity with careful observations and practical applications. I hope those who are interested can learn much from my ideas. Regards Arto.

 

The Induction Computer

July 1, 2017

The Induction Computer

by Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2017

Here are some interesting combinations using relays as logic gates, which was where I began this first step into the Induction Computer.

As you can see I have “single relays” and “double pole relays” and “Latch relays”, an old technology that goes back to the beginnings of the study of electromagnetism in the 1800’s. My studies into remnant magnetism of different materials, brought me into an understanding of natural rocks and the possibility of using either “Granite”, other rocks or even a poured casting as a magnetically imprinted “Logic Matrix Array”, storing functions, complex procedures, information and even pictures, videos and music.

In the Voltage Multiplier I have even eliminated any semiconductors, even diodes and batteries, while only using coils, capacitors, magnets and relay operations. You can see my process of elimination and the final schematic being without any high tech micro components.

There are a few parts to make the whole system function, here are some of the descriptions for the Voltage Multiplier.

The Slab that must have
1 Remnant Magnetism within permissible limits
2 Flat Surface, possibly engraved for descriptive and functional reasoning
3 Location keys for Imprinter and Reader

The Matrix Imprinter
1 Magnetic Array
2 Electromagnetic Array
3 Reset and Wipe function

The Induction Reader
1 Layered Switch Array
2 Geometric Coil Matrix
3 External Switches/Buttons and Levers/Handles arced or rotary

Physical Actions of Operator
1 Generate Voltage
2 Instigate Switch Operations
3 Discharge to external device

As this blog article is only to describe some of my work, it is not the whole article, that you will find in my next volume of “Talking To The Birds” Volume II. If the interest in these ideas are popular, I would consider a FundMe or Patreon profile and begin the arduous progress of a working system , regards Arto.

Artext Poetics

June 5, 2017

Here are a few poems that I recently published on All Poetry, I have also added the titles in my freshly minted writing system “Artext”,(note – the spelling offence is deliberate), regards Arto.

 

Gene Soul

by Arto Juhani Heino

 

My creator speaks to my genes
I find it accompanies my dreams

My Eyes find harmony in my creations
My mind is free to allow such beautifications

Do we question our being when nature is our designs
Have we a soul in our frame or is it us genes who finds.

 

 

The Blinded Book Face

by Arto Juhani Heino

 

Nary a whimper,
A glimpse of cognition,
Only blank stares,
And mindless glares.

This is the breed that
has been corralled.

Only opinions and echos,
Sad delusion of plastic civility.

 

Prediction of Offence

by Arto Juhani Heino

 

Quite words of solidarity,
Angry voices of peace.

Vicious attacks on piety,
Whispers for genocide.

Am I blinded by darkness,
When depths are so high.

Pander the cruelty,
Bury the kind.

 

 

 

A Clear Perspective of Co2

June 1, 2017

Here is a reasonably accurate volumetric equivalence for man made Co2, which in the true scale of natures processes is an insignificant amount and of no concern to our future, cows fart far more green houses gases than mankind makes. Pollution of our food and local environment should be of more concern than a natural gas that is required for our living system. Historically the Earth has had many more times the Co2 than the present by many factors of scaling. Regards Arto.

Fake News

February 9, 2017

I have stopped watching my TV about 15 years ago and I have been feeling ill about watching “Liberal” Fake News channels the last 8 years, the ones come to mind from America are CNN, NBC and ABC. The list very long which should include Australian junk like ATN, TCN and TEN they all pander to a mental delusion of what News really is. Not only the News channels but Facebook is full of posts that come from the same fake and dubious “Main Stream Media”. Here are some graphics that came out of this distaste and the inspiration from a direct and honest portrayal of MSM by the wonderful President of America, Mr Donald J. Trump.

I will add more to this post as time goes, regards Arto.

cnnfake1c

fakebook1b

abcusafake1a

 

 

 

Arto on the Walk – Day 5 to 6

October 15, 2016

Promo –

Art On The Walk, at the Henry Deane Plaza Monday 10th – Friday 14th October between 8.00am-7.00pm. Over the week follow each work of art on facebook.com/henrydeaneplaza and get a chance to vote for your favourite artist at henrydeaneplaza.com.

Day 5

The day was fine and slightly windy, my drawing was bombed with bird dropping at least 6 times, much cleaning and adjustment was needed to fix those wounds. I mainly focused on tonal rendering and added a small frog(kek) to the drawing, many small areas of focus to clarify the multi-level story that was unfolding.

I was asked many things by the audience, one thing I did say more than once, “If Rembrandt was working on a drawing in his studio for a number of weeks before he started to paint, this would be the equivalent drawing. The difference would be, I am in the middle of Sydney, drawing on the ground, in a plaza with thousands of passers by, chatting and taking photos, working for only 5 days, I am sure Rembrandt would find the 21st century an undesirable place, noisy, full of distractions and not a place to contemplate deep and meaningful ideas on a drawing board, let alone a master work. ”

I talked to many while I defined the artistic vision, getting ever closer to the end. A few more small things and all was done.

artonwalkday5-3a artonwalkday5-2a

Day 6

I arrived at 9.20, I had missed an earlier train. I just added 4 leaves on the main tree and cleaned someones absent minded foot prints from 2 parts of the drawing. Minor adjustments to some needed areas, signed it and all was done. In those 5 and a bit days I spent at least 7 hours a day standing with my legs apart drawing with the end of the pencil, enjoying every painful lunge, with a great desire to render my deep ideas , I never felt tired or listless, only pure CHI, as I had only honor and love to drive all my inspirations, not monetary gain.

artonwalkday6-1a

The photo is not quite the best, I had a problem with the lighting, I will re-post a better picture in the future.

uncovered-folklore1aUncovered Folklore

I hope you enjoyed my creative journey, I will write a 20 page essay on the meaning and my considerations that took place while I dug deep into what has occurred in the history of the 20th century and what we have forgotten about from our ancient past, something I contemplated in those 5 days, where many others I know would take years for same outcome, as a masterwork does not fall out of an empty shelf.

Many decades of drawing have taught me to simplify the subject, harmonize the composition and let the viewer become involved in the process of piecing the story together, without too many complex thematic images or jarring abstracted ideas, each which can take away the underlying beauty and truth of artistic expression.

Modern art (or Post Modern Art) has no longer a place in the life of man in the 21st century, it has completely failed in communicating a balance of the deep emotional needs, spiritual and intellectual wants of a complex world that has incoherent images thrust into every aspect of our daily life. As a working Artist I have passed though the fire and brimstone of every modern art genre and found that our survival as intelligent, self reliant humans have been sorely compromised by the fake “isms” that has its only goal of supplying a never ending stream of “junk art” to fill the Modern/Post Modern Art Industry, enriching the Galleries and destroying the Artists. I have made it my goal to restore the faith in the ability of our Artists to present beauty, truth and a deep dialog with those who want to become enlightened in our population. My art has a tradition that is thousands of years old and it will survive many more, the deconstruction of art in the 20th century was but an aberration doomed to destroy itself and finally become something to be scorned.

Thanks for following my work, Regards Arto.

 

Arto on the Walk – Day 1 to 4

October 13, 2016

Promo –

Art On The Walk, at the Henry Deane Plaza Monday 10th – Friday 14th October between 8.00am-7.00pm. Over the week follow each work of art on facebook.com/henrydeaneplaza and get a chance to vote for your favourite artist at henrydeaneplaza.com.

The passers by can watch the compositions grow from a few sketchy lines to the completed artwork, I am very excited to be drawing at the very hub of the Sydney commuters. I am looking forward to putting many hours of creativity for the public to enjoy, please come and visit, if not then follow our progress on Facebook. If you do not know me, do not be afraid to have a small chat while I work, I do enjoy entertaining a large crowd while dancing on the end of a pencil, LOL, Arto.

My running commentary:

Day 1

A nice warm day, perfect to attack the paper with some quick pencil sketches. The other Artists are a terrific bunch of hard working crafters, good enough to scare the pants out of the average sketcher.

They day went well and I completed the initial sketch in record time, I worked like lightening, without hardley a break, I hope my crowd pleasing pencil dance inspired all in attendance, LOL.

artoartofthewalk2 artoartofthewalk1

Day 2

It was failing light near 6.30pm, I was struggling to get a clear photo of drawing. My leg muscles ached all day but I still carried on, just too much fun for this old dude LOL. I have 3 more days and all I will be doing is increasing detail and I will not add any colour, as the overwhelming response from the public was keep it as a pencil drawing. I agree, the paper that we are using is not suitable for my classical approach to pastel/watercolour/gouache, yet I could just smudge my way through and ruin a very comprehensive pencil drawing, which this paper is an excellent choice.

The cotton paper of choice would have cost over $100 a sheet, not economical for a live venue, where problems can occur with wind and weather. My only choice is to use this as a drawing in its own right rather than sully it with an unsuitable medium. The crowds have been fantastic and very responsive to our live drawing, all the Artists involved are absolutely the nicest folks around, not to forget the quality organizers.

artoartofthewalk6 artoartofthewalk5

Day 3

I forgot to take photos on day 3, my legs muscles were wrecked LOL, try lunges for 9 hours and you’ll understand ouch !! I did a lot of detailed work that day, arriving home at 9.15, a very tired Art soldier.

Day 4

My legs muscles improved overnight but the weather didn’t. The day was filled with strong gusts and threats of rain, to offset that, the drawing went smoothly and crowds were fantastic!!! 🙂 Some extremely interesting visits from members of the public, I am definitely a fan of those that pass through Henry Dean Plaza LOL. The sprinkling of rain come late in the afternoon, while all the Artists acted as a highly co-ordinates team of well trained professionals picking up all the artwork in less than a minute!! You just got to love all the Artists in the group.

Some of us worked in the storage room from sometime, until the rain abated, then another burst of rain came, then back out again. It was a fun day for all with many laughs while birds bombed our artwork with their droppings LOL We are looking forward to the last day for everybody to put their finishing touches on each work.

artonwalkday4-2a artonwalkday4-1a

See you Tomorrow with the picture file when its completed, Regards Arto.

 

Modern Art as a Failure of Reason, Progress and Creativity

June 14, 2016

Modern Art as a Failure of Reason, Progress and Creativity.

By Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2016

Cubist Guitar by Arto Juhani Heino, 1982.

Cubist Guitar by Arto Juhani Heino, 1982.

     I will start this essay with a simple acknowledgement that it is not the artists personal outlooks that strike me with offense but their lack of sympathy with their audience, where sympathy should be the hallmark of great artistic achievement. Rather these artists revel in their ability to aggravate, distort, bamboozle, shock and show disdain to their audience , a gift to offend is held up like some great virtue of genius. It does not take a great mind to be a callus communicator, rather it takes a special type of cruelty to consider the ideas by Art Historians as a deep and meaningful dialogue with the viewer, this being said, it actually describes a Hegelian dialect with our society.

      To summarize the Hegelian Dialect as comprising three dialectical stages of development: a thesis, giving rise to its reaction, an antithesis, which contradicts or negates the thesis, and the tension between the two being resolved by means of a synthesis. The abstraction being the thesis, its reaction to the viewer being the antithesis, and the resulting fallout being the synthesis. All three have been predetermined and the results have been noted and used to push all and any agenda deemed useful in the arts to the benefits of others that have been predetermined.

Soto Portego by Mark Rothko

Soto Portego by Mark Rothko

     It seems to me that Rothko, Man Ray and his fellow art conspirators were some of the weaponized human chattel to begin a metaphysical world view called “modern art” in Europe, America and the rest of the international connections. They and many others helped to facilitate a vague minded elitist take over of the artistic academia, teaching students to go beyond the representational and focus on the abstract concerns, as all those who paint and draw, you are already mechanically and methodologically driven by abstractions involving color, line, direction, shape, execution and physical expressions. They simply hitched the reigns onto this existing fact and drove it as far as could be taken, using every verbal assault that could be mustered from Marxist Psychology, its progenitors and a new list of word salad that have been introduced and is still with us today.

Photography as Art by Man Ray

Photography as Art by Man Ray

     So the abstractionist from the beginning of the twentieth century were basically taking a normal well rounded artist, versed in their mediums, visual skills and hand crafts then placing an opaque lens to one of their basic tenets, the visual explanation of their abstracted physicality. So being handicapped in such a manner, they can no longer spell out the meaning in their work to the audience, they now must make it totally incomprehensible, by using the characteristics of artistic communication and purposely misspelling and randomizing so as to confound the observer and misdirect the true intentions to form a metaphysical assault to the viewer. A form of intentional lying with all the misleading dialogue built into the forms within the artwork.

      This has been a successful method to discredit artists from being connected to the audience, where now you must be “educated” to understand. The methods used in Art Schools have been a form of cultural Marxism and has served as a rich pallet where freedom of personal expression, without conscience, has been placed as a virtue beyond approach. Any non representational art has been elevated and considered worthy of public display. Semi-Abstracted works that have a particular stylist flare, has now taken the stage, where the infantile mentality is displayed without a murmur of dissent from critics, they have been trained well in this dialogue from the doctrine masters.

Mangalated by Arto Juhani Heino 2009

Mangalated by Arto Juhani Heino 2009

      Comic book art has also taken this and other fantasies and made a complete imaginary world where generations of children follow the physiological mapping that is truly devoid of any real history or science, where the metaphysical has almost a tangible reality, de-connecting any life enhancing observations to be replaced by a magical reasoning that captivates and entrances the young readers. The complete brain training of young minds has its highest expression in comic book art, one of the greatest successes besides the films of Hollywood.

      This cultural subversion has been completed by all the major art institutes, where the nihilistic qualities rain supreme and irrational dialogue between the observer and artist is a requirement, otherwise the labeling of representational art is considered quaint, parochial or just plain derivative of inane craft-work, devoid of profound understanding or perception, that is, according to the standards written into the doctrines of modern art institutions, which were written to exclude those who would like to start the true narrative of our current society. As modernism is not a cultural movement so much it is a false premise made for its own demise, purely a means to an end, a destruction and deconstruction of our reason.

      Looking earlier to an earlier art movement of Impressionism, it was never a revolt against the traditions of the art salons, it was the simple expressions of artists notations taken during the changing light and color of day, a quick shorthand to capture those fleeting moments. This art-form was never new, as all artist for thousands of years employs its techniques when painting from a live scene, the rendering can be then taken further as required. The much used method of studies, drawing, planning and draftsmanship is the other way to approach a subject, this methodology had also been swallowed by the modern academics and replaced with fanciful “isms”, where the representation of geometry was now akin to a religious experience.

     Pablo Picasso was a prime example of the self proclaiming that was very much of the tradition of the invading subversives and political revolutionaries at the time, he was encouraged to reflect the cacophony of a degrading society and a cultural war created by the bankers and by his portraits of mankind. This was not an art movement but a careful and deliberate assault on every aspect of visual notation and a way to annihilate any aesthetic progress by destroying the essentials of the artistic traditions and the observational histrionics. His work was enthusiastically promoted as a new outsider art that was actually insider art masquerading as such. The redefinition of art history was left to the the “Cultural Marxists”** to define and elaborate for the next 100 years.

Portrait of Dora Maar by Pablo Picasso

Portrait of Dora Maar by Pablo Picasso

     It has become a morass of symbology describing a degraded world without virtues but only shapes that define a metaphysical construction, built to delude you from questioning its authenticity, and only question the interpretation of the narrative. Where traditional art needed no such acclimatizing and re-education, as all is revealed in simple allegory obvious symbols and masterful light and shade, where rendering was the physical craft of expression, not the expression as a philosophical tenure.

Quoting George Braque (1882-1963)- “Truth exists. Only falsehood has to be invented.”

      Here is a classic example of explaining clearly what the great cubists had invented for public consumption, they already knew when the story of modern art was to be written, that it would find a completely invented form with its shallow vestiges and all its circular arguments made by those abstract pioneers.

Quoting Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), “Nature and art, being two different things, cannot be the same thing. Through art we express our conception of what nature is not.”

     Here is another gem for the grist, where the reality that nature and art are actually the same thing, only the physical representation is not the physical nature, but the nature of the materials and the nature of the human who wields them are very much the same thing. His last sentence explains nothing, as it is self contradictory, “through art we express”, expressing is human nature at its most profound, where “conception” now becomes an abstract that has been invented to explain away the two dimensional description of a visual scene or an idea from the mind.

     Where in reality painting has never been any more than a descriptive language used by artists to convey a meaningful dialogue with the viewer, it is in the nature of the artist that he be as truthful to his intention as possible, otherwise he cannot be an artist, only a charlatan, masquerading as a gifted craftsman, while just being a well versed house painter.

Modern Life by Arto Juhani Heino 1986, Gouache on Board

Modern Life by Arto Juhani Heino 1986, Gouache on Board

Wireless Power 1917

November 11, 2015

This article is from Popular Science Monthly, what a great read, and a very concise look at what the current developments were at the time, be it the theories or practical applications this article will be most interesting.

Popular Science

Popular Science Monthly
JULY 1917
SUMNER N. BLOSSQM Editor
VOL III. No 1

Wireless Power——The Next Great Invention

Electrical Experts, in Amazing Experiments, Reveal How Radio Beams Soon May Light and Heat Our Homes

By ALDEN P. ARMAGNAC

In a New York lecture hall a few nights ago. a group of engineers watched a scientist raise in his hand an electric light bulb. To it was attached a four-foot copper rod. A short distance away a radio vacuum tube was turned on—-and instantly the bulb glowed brilliantly!

This was “radio power,” dream of scientists. On a laboratory scale, Dr. Phillips Thomas, research engineer of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, had demonstrated before the New York Electrical Society how near scientists had come to the transmission of energy without wires between cities and across country.

Tomorrow, radio beams of power may light and heat your home. Electric waves surging without wires through the earth and the ether may drive airplanes, automobiles and trains. Instead of the present uneconomical use of coal in small power plants scattered through every country, a few monster central stations may generate all of the world’s power, which may he tapped by an aerial or a grounded wire at any point on the earth’s surface. Isolated homes as well as the factories of a metropolis will share equally in the wealth of available power by wireless. Such a prophecy for the future is well within the limits of possibility, in this wonder age of science. A few months ago. no one dreamed that soon you would be able to see by radio—-yet now we have television! Will radio power be the next great invention? Many scientists are at work on it today—and at any moment it may he realized on a practical scale. The idea of transmitting power with out wires is not new. Heinrich Hertz, discoverer of radio waves. tested its possibility and found it feasible. Nikola Tesla, celebrated inventor. Who devised a system of wired power to transmit alternating electric currents, now in use throughout the world, has experimented in the field for years. Even now he is designing an amazing wireless power plant to he erected at Niagara Falls. Dr. Charles Steinmetz. one of the greatest electricians the world has known, was a firm believer in future wireless  power and suggested a method by which it might be achieved. Senator Marconi, father of radio communication adds his expert opinion that power by radio is near.

Only recently Marconi told the Institution of Civil Engineers in London that the transmission of power by electrical waves awaited only the perfection of devices for projecting the waves in parallel beams in such a manner as to minimize dispersion and diffusion of the energy into space.

The ordinary broadcasting station projects random waves in all directions that follow outward paths like the spokes of a cartwheel. A few miles away, you could not collect power enough to run your watch. But Marconi has invented a radio reflector that concentrates the waves in one direction, bunching them all together, as between two adjacent spokes of the wheel. In his system a number of short “aerials” are arranged in a curved row at the back of the main broadcasting antenna to reflect the waves it emits in a beam with parallel or at most slightly fan-shaped edges. Between London and Canada, and elsewhere. this type of “beam radio” has produced strong signals for radio telegraphy at a distance where ordinary signals would be weak and inaudible.

A “magnifying transmitter,” that hurls electric currents at millions of volts into the earth, to be recovered as power at any point on its surface, is the invention of Nikola Tesla. “The transmission of power without wires is not a theory or a mere possibility.” this wizard of electricity told me recently. “It is a fact which I myself have demonstrated in numerous practical experiments, conducted on a large scale with a generator of 1500 kilowatts capacity. As long ago as 1899 I found that the current from my magnifying transmitter traverses the globe and returns to its origin with undiminished strength. This at forded evidence that there was virtually no loss in the transmission through the earth: and that by a properly organized apparatus at the sending and receiving stations, power in industrial amounts could be transmitted with an efficiency as high as ninety-nine and a half percent.”

To TRANSMIT power through the earth, Dr. Tesla said, he plans to erect at Niagara a huge tower similar to the one he had partially completed on Long Island N. Y., when it was destroyed at the outbreak of the European war. Contrary to popular opinion, neither that nor the improved structure he proposes is a radio tower. Like some gigantic pile driver, it will jar the earth, not the air, with artificial thunderbolts manufactured in its mushroom like dome.

In the sky, as well as the earth, may lie the secret of wireless power. A study of huge sparks, some of them 400 feet long, that Tesla has produced in his laboratory, has shown that in the rarefied upper atmosphere electricity could travel with surprising ease, though at ground level it takes thousands of volts to produce a spark a few inches long.

Other experiments have shown that the levels at which such a low of electric power could be produced are within a reasonable distance of the earth,—say 30.000 feet above sea level. This has led Hugh Pollard, a British engineer, to suggest monster towers reaching into the clouds and topped by captive balloons, to feed power at millions of volts into the vast conducting layer of the upper air. At other points on the earth’s surface, such as Mount McKinley with its 20,000 foot peak in Alaska. Mount Whitney in California, and Mont Blane in France, similar towers would withdraw the power for distribution.

At the poles. Pollard points out, this conducting layer of air is probably much nearer, perhaps only a mile high, because here the rotating force of the whirling earth is little felt. and does not pull the atmosphere away from the surface, as it does at the equator. A polar power plant might therefore feed power more easily into the aerial electric reservoir. Moreover, the exploring parties of Vilhjalmur Stefansson and of Capt. Donald MacMillan in the Far North, and of Sir Ernest Shackleton, Roald Amundsen, and Capt. Robert F. Scott in Antarctic regions have reported that vast stores of coal, and occasionally oil, exist near the poles. There would be no lack of fuel, then, to run the plants—fuel that now lies unused simply because the cost of transporting it to civilization would be too great.

HOW well the theory of a low conducting air level at the poles agrees with fact is likely soon to be known. Arctic explorers invariably return with accounts of strange displays of northern lights—a weirdly beautiful electric phenomenon still not fully understood, but known to have a definite connection with the electrified upper air. The most recent polar expeditions have collected masses of scientific data taken from auroral observations, which may confirm the existence of such a low-hanging layer. The amazing system of wireless power proposed by Dr. Steinmetz, the exact opposite of Tesla’s “earth power,” was to girdle the earth with power from the outside instead of from within. A broadcasting station, he said, might emit a wave of tremendous strength—millions of horsepower—that would circle the earth and return to its starting point. If the wave length were properly chosen, such a wave would have lost only a small part of its power by the time it completed its journey, and would continue its circuit many times. The broadcasting station would time its successive waves so accurately that the first one  returned at the exact moment that a similar one was being sent out. The only additional power required. then, to keep the waves going would be to make up the slight loss in transmission, as long as no power was being withdrawn. When some receiving station “tuned-in” to withdraw the wireless power, it would “leave a hole in the wave” that the broadcasting station would make up by supplying an additional amount. Many stations scattered over the world could feed power into the wave, each one carefully timed to emit its waves just as the main wave passed by.

“Radio power” of another sort was used by Dr. Harvey C. Rentschler, like Dr. Thomas a Westinghouse research engineer, to perform a feat that had baffled chemists for years. He demonstrated his apparatus on the same night that Dr. Thomas disclosed his method of transmitting power without wires. In a new type of “radio furnace“ that melts metals in a vacuum. Dr. Rentschler succeeded in obtaining the rare metal uranium in a solid mass for the first time. The device that accomplished this remarkable result and thereby inaugurated a new science- “radio-chemistry ”—was designed to focus a large quantity of radio power in a small space, rather than transmit it to a distance.

When Dr. Rentschler threw a switch that turned on the current, radio waves from a powerful electric coil pierced the emptiness of the vacuum to generate a terrific electric current in a small capsule of impure powder containing uranium. There was a flash, and incandescent metal swelled to a molten mass. When it cooled, Dr. Rentschler was the first man in the world to see what this extremely heavy metal looked like. Much like iron in its grayish appearance, it was far more precious than platinum.

Other rare metals of like properties yielded their secrets to Dr. Rentschler when placed in the vacuum and heated by radio waves. The new furnace is of inestimable value to chemists, who can now watch reactions they could never see before that can take place only at high temperatures, in a vacuum.

With radio power in a test tube already achieved, will the next step be radio power in your home? Very likely, Dr. Thomas told the scientists who witnessed his demonstrations of lamp-lighting by radio.

Already he can transmit power without wires over a short distance. With improved vacuum tubes and electric circuits, he said, he hoped to improve his power transmission until he produced a type of wireless wave that would yield a space-annihilating beam over which huge quantities of power might be sent.

Short radio waves, ten thousand times shorter than those used in broadcasting, are the means Dr. Thomas will use. His goal is a “beam radio”—but a beam unlike any that has ever been produced. If he can make his radio waves short enough and powerful enough—he will focus them to a narrow, four-inch ray by means of a curved metal mirror!

Then he will project his beam, like a searchlight, to its destination. Such rays would criss-cross a city, and wires would become obsolete. Each home would have its own “rod receiver,” a short copper wire, resembling the one Dr. Thomas used in his demonstration, with which you could tap the power flowing through the ether just as you now listen-in to music with your radio set.

The idea of reflecting radio waves with mirrors may seem a little startling, but your own experience will yield the evidence in its favor. The silvered reflector of your car’s headlight concentrates its rays in a parallel beam. Light waves and radio waves are closely related to each other, differing only in their length; the waves of light are much shorter. Could radio waves, like light, be focused?

In between light and radio are heat waves—of medium length. Like light waves. they too can be obtained of short wave and maximum power. The radio wave that furnished the wireless current supply was only two and four-tenths meters—about eight feet long; yet through it he was able to “broadcast” thirty watts, about a twentieth of a horsepower. He can produce a wave of half that length, though his power is also cut in half.

To try out his scheme of reflecting a beam with a metal mirror, Dr. Thomas awaits the shorter-wave, higher-power beam he hopes to obtain. In his demonstration he allowed his radio waves to scatter at random through the surrounding air, and his feat of transmitting an appreciable amount of power was therefore the more remarkable.

DR THOMAS is not the first scientist to light lamps by radio; his simplified apparatus, rather than the demonstration of wireless light, is his greatest accomplishment. Nearly four years ago, Dr. Willis R. Whitney, of the General Electric Company, demonstrated before the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Cincinnati what he then characterized as an advance “as near to the wireless transmission of power as we have yet seen.” Standing a foot away from a powerful electric coil through which alternating current was pulsing at high frequency he held up a lamp bulb like those in your home and caused it to glow by wireless power. This experiment follows the same principle as Dr. Rentschler’s radio furnace, instead of Dr. Thomas’ method of using radio waves at a distance.

More than twenty years before, Nikola Tesla first lit a lamp by radio. He used a wave of a size that required a huge receiving coil of wire attached to the lamp. The other end of the coil was grounded, and the length of the wire was so chosen as to be exactly “in tune” with the broadcasting station hundreds of feet away.

What Dr. Thomas has done is to substitute for complicated receivers an ordinary piece of straight wire, made possible by the short wave he has produced. To pick up power from any radio wave, the rod, Dr. Thomas found, must be exactly half as long as the wave itself. Collecting current from a broadcasting wave would therefore require a rod of unwieldy length. With Dr. Thomas’ eight-foot wave, it need be only four feet long—a handy little rod to keep in your home!

The way that Dr. Thomas‘ “half-wave receiver,” as he calls it, picks up power from the air might be illustrated by placing a hollow tube half an “ocean wave length” long in the breakers at the seashore, pointing out to sea. One end of the tube would lie in the crest of an incoming wave. the other in the trough of the preceding one, and water would surge through it in one direction. A moment later, the crest would have reached the other end. the first end would be in a trough, and water would rush through it the other way. In the same manner an alternating surge of current runs back and forth along the metal rod from the radio waves in the air.

This much science already knows about the mechanics of generating and handling the radio power beam. But there will be more to learn— for the ray that Dr. Thomas seeks in his East Pittsburgh, laboratory, is a dangerous subject for experiment before scientists learn to control it. No one knows what might happen if such a beam were turned loose!

It might render the air through which it passed a conductor of electricity, much as does a bolt of lightning temporarily—and turn a shaft of air into an “electric wire” along which you could send an ordinary electric current. The radio beam, then, need not itself conduct the power, but serve simply as a channel for electricity.

For instance, an isolated mining camp in the face of an inaccessible mountain might receive electric power to run the mining machinery from a beam shot through the air from the base of the mountain.

One thing, Dr. Thomas says, is certain— with half the power of a modern broadcasting station behind it, a short-wave radio ray focused in a narrow beam of concentrated power would kill anyone who stepped in its way. Stray electric currents which it would induce in a man’s body would instantly burn him up. Here, then, is it veritable “death ray”—not a fantastic dream, Dr. Thomas points out, but like radio power a sober scientific possibility. In time of war, this ray would prove a terrible and awe-inspiring weapon. Radio rays of overwhelming power turned upon an enemy army would cause it to disappear in smoke. Along the radio beam might course powerful electric currents to complete the destruction.

BUT in its peacetime uses it would be of greatest service to man. High towers could be used to keep the deadly beam where it could do no harm as it transmitted vast quantities of power across the earth. At night a bluish glow would surround the transmitting tower from leakage of the high-tension current, and perhaps even the beam would glow like a searchlight piercing faint mist.

Smaller beams, less dangerous to man, might distribute the power at the receiving station. This would correspond roughly to the present system of using transformers to change the dangerous high-tension electric current used in wired power transmission into low pressure current safe for home use.

Into your home, perhaps straight through the wall, the ray would enter, while the “half-wave receiver” would absorb power to light your lamps—not ordinary lamps, but a special type of electric light built like a radio vacuum tube—and run your washing machine and electric toaster.

Can it be done? The “ifs” are merely matters of figures now. Scientists have taken away the mystery that cloaks radio power, and have shown how it is to be attained. Each by his own method, they are drawing nearer and nearer to its useful realization. With all the resources of great laboratories at their command, they are working out the last practical details. Any day, now, they may announce to a waiting world that at last the goal has been achieved.

Dr Phillip ThomasCourtesy of New York Electrical Society

Wireless light and power already have been achieved in the laboratory. Here Dr. Phillips Thomas, research engineer of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, is using radio impulse from the vacuum tube at left to light a small electric lamp attached to a copper “aerial” rod

P2-PowerAir1How radio eventually may supply our homes and industries with light, heat and power. Our artist pictures here his conception of a wonderful power transmission system of the future, based on present laboratory experiments. High power beams of short radio waves, projected for long distances by means of huge reflectors, would be tapped by receiving apparatus, much as we now tap broadcast radio programs.

P3-TeslaTow1The famous power tower at Shoreham, Long island designed by Nikola Tesla to transmit thousands of horsepower through the earth. It was dismantled at the outbreak of the European war. The inventor now plans to construct a similar tower at Niagara Falls.

TesPict5

Dr Harvey C RentschlerCourtesy New York Electrical Society

A remarkable concentration of radio power. Dr. Harvey C. Rentschler, Westinghouse research engineer, demonstrates his new type of “radio furnace” which melts metals in a vacuum. Powerful radio waves from the electric coil above Doctor Rentschler’s hand penetrate the adjacent vacuum tube and generate a terrific current in the metal within.

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