Archive for the ‘History’ Category

Modern Art as a Failure of Reason, Progress and Creativity

June 14, 2016

Modern Art as a Failure of Reason, Progress and Creativity.

By Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2016

Cubist Guitar by Arto Juhani Heino, 1982.

Cubist Guitar by Arto Juhani Heino, 1982.

     I will start this essay with a simple acknowledgement that it is not the artists personal outlooks that strike me with offense but their lack of sympathy with their audience, where sympathy should be the hallmark of great artistic achievement. Rather these artists revel in their ability to aggravate, distort, bamboozle, shock and show disdain to their audience , a gift to offend is held up like some great virtue of genius. It does not take a great mind to be a callus communicator, rather it takes a special type of cruelty to consider the ideas by Art Historians as a deep and meaningful dialogue with the viewer, this being said, it actually describes a Hegelian dialect with our society.

      To summarize the Hegelian Dialect as comprising three dialectical stages of development: a thesis, giving rise to its reaction, an antithesis, which contradicts or negates the thesis, and the tension between the two being resolved by means of a synthesis. The abstraction being the thesis, its reaction to the viewer being the antithesis, and the resulting fallout being the synthesis. All three have been predetermined and the results have been noted and used to push all and any agenda deemed useful in the arts to the benefits of others that have been predetermined.

Soto Portego by Mark Rothko

Soto Portego by Mark Rothko

     It seems to me that Rothko, Man Ray and his fellow art conspirators were some of the weaponized human chattel to begin a metaphysical world view called “modern art” in Europe, America and the rest of the international connections. They and many others helped to facilitate a vague minded elitist take over of the artistic academia, teaching students to go beyond the representational and focus on the abstract concerns, as all those who paint and draw, you are already mechanically and methodologically driven by abstractions involving color, line, direction, shape, execution and physical expressions. They simply hitched the reigns onto this existing fact and drove it as far as could be taken, using every verbal assault that could be mustered from Marxist Psychology, its progenitors and a new list of word salad that have been introduced and is still with us today.

Photography as Art by Man Ray

Photography as Art by Man Ray

     So the abstractionist from the beginning of the twentieth century were basically taking a normal well rounded artist, versed in their mediums, visual skills and hand crafts then placing an opaque lens to one of their basic tenets, the visual explanation of their abstracted physicality. So being handicapped in such a manner, they can no longer spell out the meaning in their work to the audience, they now must make it totally incomprehensible, by using the characteristics of artistic communication and purposely misspelling and randomizing so as to confound the observer and misdirect the true intentions to form a metaphysical assault to the viewer. A form of intentional lying with all the misleading dialogue built into the forms within the artwork.

      This has been a successful method to discredit artists from being connected to the audience, where now you must be “educated” to understand. The methods used in Art Schools have been a form of cultural Marxism and has served as a rich pallet where freedom of personal expression, without conscience, has been placed as a virtue beyond approach. Any non representational art has been elevated and considered worthy of public display. Semi-Abstracted works that have a particular stylist flare, has now taken the stage, where the infantile mentality is displayed without a murmur of dissent from critics, they have been trained well in this dialogue from the doctrine masters.

Mangalated by Arto Juhani Heino 2009

Mangalated by Arto Juhani Heino 2009

      Comic book art has also taken this and other fantasies and made a complete imaginary world where generations of children follow the physiological mapping that is truly devoid of any real history or science, where the metaphysical has almost a tangible reality, de-connecting any life enhancing observations to be replaced by a magical reasoning that captivates and entrances the young readers. The complete brain training of young minds has its highest expression in comic book art, one of the greatest successes besides the films of Hollywood.

      This cultural subversion has been completed by all the major art institutes, where the nihilistic qualities rain supreme and irrational dialogue between the observer and artist is a requirement, otherwise the labeling of representational art is considered quaint, parochial or just plain derivative of inane craft-work, devoid of profound understanding or perception, that is, according to the standards written into the doctrines of modern art institutions, which were written to exclude those who would like to start the true narrative of our current society. As modernism is not a cultural movement so much it is a false premise made for its own demise, purely a means to an end, a destruction and deconstruction of our reason.

      Looking earlier to an earlier art movement of Impressionism, it was never a revolt against the traditions of the art salons, it was the simple expressions of artists notations taken during the changing light and color of day, a quick shorthand to capture those fleeting moments. This art-form was never new, as all artist for thousands of years employs its techniques when painting from a live scene, the rendering can be then taken further as required. The much used method of studies, drawing, planning and draftsmanship is the other way to approach a subject, this methodology had also been swallowed by the modern academics and replaced with fanciful “isms”, where the representation of geometry was now akin to a religious experience.

     Pablo Picasso was a prime example of the self proclaiming that was very much of the tradition of the invading subversives and political revolutionaries at the time, he was encouraged to reflect the cacophony of a degrading society and a cultural war created by the bankers and by his portraits of mankind. This was not an art movement but a careful and deliberate assault on every aspect of visual notation and a way to annihilate any aesthetic progress by destroying the essentials of the artistic traditions and the observational histrionics. His work was enthusiastically promoted as a new outsider art that was actually insider art masquerading as such. The redefinition of art history was left to the the “Cultural Marxists”** to define and elaborate for the next 100 years.

Portrait of Dora Maar by Pablo Picasso

Portrait of Dora Maar by Pablo Picasso

     It has become a morass of symbology describing a degraded world without virtues but only shapes that define a metaphysical construction, built to delude you from questioning its authenticity, and only question the interpretation of the narrative. Where traditional art needed no such acclimatizing and re-education, as all is revealed in simple allegory obvious symbols and masterful light and shade, where rendering was the physical craft of expression, not the expression as a philosophical tenure.

Quoting George Braque (1882-1963)- “Truth exists. Only falsehood has to be invented.”

      Here is a classic example of explaining clearly what the great cubists had invented for public consumption, they already knew when the story of modern art was to be written, that it would find a completely invented form with its shallow vestiges and all its circular arguments made by those abstract pioneers.

Quoting Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), “Nature and art, being two different things, cannot be the same thing. Through art we express our conception of what nature is not.”

     Here is another gem for the grist, where the reality that nature and art are actually the same thing, only the physical representation is not the physical nature, but the nature of the materials and the nature of the human who wields them are very much the same thing. His last sentence explains nothing, as it is self contradictory, “through art we express”, expressing is human nature at its most profound, where “conception” now becomes an abstract that has been invented to explain away the two dimensional description of a visual scene or an idea from the mind.

     Where in reality painting has never been any more than a descriptive language used by artists to convey a meaningful dialogue with the viewer, it is in the nature of the artist that he be as truthful to his intention as possible, otherwise he cannot be an artist, only a charlatan, masquerading as a gifted craftsman, while just being a well versed house painter.

Modern Life by Arto Juhani Heino 1986, Gouache on Board

Modern Life by Arto Juhani Heino 1986, Gouache on Board

Wireless Power 1917

November 11, 2015

This article is from Popular Science Monthly, what a great read, and a very concise look at what the current developments were at the time, be it the theories or practical applications this article will be most interesting.

Popular Science

Popular Science Monthly
JULY 1917
SUMNER N. BLOSSQM Editor
VOL III. No 1

Wireless Power——The Next Great Invention

Electrical Experts, in Amazing Experiments, Reveal How Radio Beams Soon May Light and Heat Our Homes

By ALDEN P. ARMAGNAC

In a New York lecture hall a few nights ago. a group of engineers watched a scientist raise in his hand an electric light bulb. To it was attached a four-foot copper rod. A short distance away a radio vacuum tube was turned on—-and instantly the bulb glowed brilliantly!

This was “radio power,” dream of scientists. On a laboratory scale, Dr. Phillips Thomas, research engineer of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, had demonstrated before the New York Electrical Society how near scientists had come to the transmission of energy without wires between cities and across country.

Tomorrow, radio beams of power may light and heat your home. Electric waves surging without wires through the earth and the ether may drive airplanes, automobiles and trains. Instead of the present uneconomical use of coal in small power plants scattered through every country, a few monster central stations may generate all of the world’s power, which may he tapped by an aerial or a grounded wire at any point on the earth’s surface. Isolated homes as well as the factories of a metropolis will share equally in the wealth of available power by wireless. Such a prophecy for the future is well within the limits of possibility, in this wonder age of science. A few months ago. no one dreamed that soon you would be able to see by radio—-yet now we have television! Will radio power be the next great invention? Many scientists are at work on it today—and at any moment it may he realized on a practical scale. The idea of transmitting power with out wires is not new. Heinrich Hertz, discoverer of radio waves. tested its possibility and found it feasible. Nikola Tesla, celebrated inventor. Who devised a system of wired power to transmit alternating electric currents, now in use throughout the world, has experimented in the field for years. Even now he is designing an amazing wireless power plant to he erected at Niagara Falls. Dr. Charles Steinmetz. one of the greatest electricians the world has known, was a firm believer in future wireless  power and suggested a method by which it might be achieved. Senator Marconi, father of radio communication adds his expert opinion that power by radio is near.

Only recently Marconi told the Institution of Civil Engineers in London that the transmission of power by electrical waves awaited only the perfection of devices for projecting the waves in parallel beams in such a manner as to minimize dispersion and diffusion of the energy into space.

The ordinary broadcasting station projects random waves in all directions that follow outward paths like the spokes of a cartwheel. A few miles away, you could not collect power enough to run your watch. But Marconi has invented a radio reflector that concentrates the waves in one direction, bunching them all together, as between two adjacent spokes of the wheel. In his system a number of short “aerials” are arranged in a curved row at the back of the main broadcasting antenna to reflect the waves it emits in a beam with parallel or at most slightly fan-shaped edges. Between London and Canada, and elsewhere. this type of “beam radio” has produced strong signals for radio telegraphy at a distance where ordinary signals would be weak and inaudible.

A “magnifying transmitter,” that hurls electric currents at millions of volts into the earth, to be recovered as power at any point on its surface, is the invention of Nikola Tesla. “The transmission of power without wires is not a theory or a mere possibility.” this wizard of electricity told me recently. “It is a fact which I myself have demonstrated in numerous practical experiments, conducted on a large scale with a generator of 1500 kilowatts capacity. As long ago as 1899 I found that the current from my magnifying transmitter traverses the globe and returns to its origin with undiminished strength. This at forded evidence that there was virtually no loss in the transmission through the earth: and that by a properly organized apparatus at the sending and receiving stations, power in industrial amounts could be transmitted with an efficiency as high as ninety-nine and a half percent.”

To TRANSMIT power through the earth, Dr. Tesla said, he plans to erect at Niagara a huge tower similar to the one he had partially completed on Long Island N. Y., when it was destroyed at the outbreak of the European war. Contrary to popular opinion, neither that nor the improved structure he proposes is a radio tower. Like some gigantic pile driver, it will jar the earth, not the air, with artificial thunderbolts manufactured in its mushroom like dome.

In the sky, as well as the earth, may lie the secret of wireless power. A study of huge sparks, some of them 400 feet long, that Tesla has produced in his laboratory, has shown that in the rarefied upper atmosphere electricity could travel with surprising ease, though at ground level it takes thousands of volts to produce a spark a few inches long.

Other experiments have shown that the levels at which such a low of electric power could be produced are within a reasonable distance of the earth,—say 30.000 feet above sea level. This has led Hugh Pollard, a British engineer, to suggest monster towers reaching into the clouds and topped by captive balloons, to feed power at millions of volts into the vast conducting layer of the upper air. At other points on the earth’s surface, such as Mount McKinley with its 20,000 foot peak in Alaska. Mount Whitney in California, and Mont Blane in France, similar towers would withdraw the power for distribution.

At the poles. Pollard points out, this conducting layer of air is probably much nearer, perhaps only a mile high, because here the rotating force of the whirling earth is little felt. and does not pull the atmosphere away from the surface, as it does at the equator. A polar power plant might therefore feed power more easily into the aerial electric reservoir. Moreover, the exploring parties of Vilhjalmur Stefansson and of Capt. Donald MacMillan in the Far North, and of Sir Ernest Shackleton, Roald Amundsen, and Capt. Robert F. Scott in Antarctic regions have reported that vast stores of coal, and occasionally oil, exist near the poles. There would be no lack of fuel, then, to run the plants—fuel that now lies unused simply because the cost of transporting it to civilization would be too great.

HOW well the theory of a low conducting air level at the poles agrees with fact is likely soon to be known. Arctic explorers invariably return with accounts of strange displays of northern lights—a weirdly beautiful electric phenomenon still not fully understood, but known to have a definite connection with the electrified upper air. The most recent polar expeditions have collected masses of scientific data taken from auroral observations, which may confirm the existence of such a low-hanging layer. The amazing system of wireless power proposed by Dr. Steinmetz, the exact opposite of Tesla’s “earth power,” was to girdle the earth with power from the outside instead of from within. A broadcasting station, he said, might emit a wave of tremendous strength—millions of horsepower—that would circle the earth and return to its starting point. If the wave length were properly chosen, such a wave would have lost only a small part of its power by the time it completed its journey, and would continue its circuit many times. The broadcasting station would time its successive waves so accurately that the first one  returned at the exact moment that a similar one was being sent out. The only additional power required. then, to keep the waves going would be to make up the slight loss in transmission, as long as no power was being withdrawn. When some receiving station “tuned-in” to withdraw the wireless power, it would “leave a hole in the wave” that the broadcasting station would make up by supplying an additional amount. Many stations scattered over the world could feed power into the wave, each one carefully timed to emit its waves just as the main wave passed by.

“Radio power” of another sort was used by Dr. Harvey C. Rentschler, like Dr. Thomas a Westinghouse research engineer, to perform a feat that had baffled chemists for years. He demonstrated his apparatus on the same night that Dr. Thomas disclosed his method of transmitting power without wires. In a new type of “radio furnace“ that melts metals in a vacuum. Dr. Rentschler succeeded in obtaining the rare metal uranium in a solid mass for the first time. The device that accomplished this remarkable result and thereby inaugurated a new science- “radio-chemistry ”—was designed to focus a large quantity of radio power in a small space, rather than transmit it to a distance.

When Dr. Rentschler threw a switch that turned on the current, radio waves from a powerful electric coil pierced the emptiness of the vacuum to generate a terrific electric current in a small capsule of impure powder containing uranium. There was a flash, and incandescent metal swelled to a molten mass. When it cooled, Dr. Rentschler was the first man in the world to see what this extremely heavy metal looked like. Much like iron in its grayish appearance, it was far more precious than platinum.

Other rare metals of like properties yielded their secrets to Dr. Rentschler when placed in the vacuum and heated by radio waves. The new furnace is of inestimable value to chemists, who can now watch reactions they could never see before that can take place only at high temperatures, in a vacuum.

With radio power in a test tube already achieved, will the next step be radio power in your home? Very likely, Dr. Thomas told the scientists who witnessed his demonstrations of lamp-lighting by radio.

Already he can transmit power without wires over a short distance. With improved vacuum tubes and electric circuits, he said, he hoped to improve his power transmission until he produced a type of wireless wave that would yield a space-annihilating beam over which huge quantities of power might be sent.

Short radio waves, ten thousand times shorter than those used in broadcasting, are the means Dr. Thomas will use. His goal is a “beam radio”—but a beam unlike any that has ever been produced. If he can make his radio waves short enough and powerful enough—he will focus them to a narrow, four-inch ray by means of a curved metal mirror!

Then he will project his beam, like a searchlight, to its destination. Such rays would criss-cross a city, and wires would become obsolete. Each home would have its own “rod receiver,” a short copper wire, resembling the one Dr. Thomas used in his demonstration, with which you could tap the power flowing through the ether just as you now listen-in to music with your radio set.

The idea of reflecting radio waves with mirrors may seem a little startling, but your own experience will yield the evidence in its favor. The silvered reflector of your car’s headlight concentrates its rays in a parallel beam. Light waves and radio waves are closely related to each other, differing only in their length; the waves of light are much shorter. Could radio waves, like light, be focused?

In between light and radio are heat waves—of medium length. Like light waves. they too can be obtained of short wave and maximum power. The radio wave that furnished the wireless current supply was only two and four-tenths meters—about eight feet long; yet through it he was able to “broadcast” thirty watts, about a twentieth of a horsepower. He can produce a wave of half that length, though his power is also cut in half.

To try out his scheme of reflecting a beam with a metal mirror, Dr. Thomas awaits the shorter-wave, higher-power beam he hopes to obtain. In his demonstration he allowed his radio waves to scatter at random through the surrounding air, and his feat of transmitting an appreciable amount of power was therefore the more remarkable.

DR THOMAS is not the first scientist to light lamps by radio; his simplified apparatus, rather than the demonstration of wireless light, is his greatest accomplishment. Nearly four years ago, Dr. Willis R. Whitney, of the General Electric Company, demonstrated before the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Cincinnati what he then characterized as an advance “as near to the wireless transmission of power as we have yet seen.” Standing a foot away from a powerful electric coil through which alternating current was pulsing at high frequency he held up a lamp bulb like those in your home and caused it to glow by wireless power. This experiment follows the same principle as Dr. Rentschler’s radio furnace, instead of Dr. Thomas’ method of using radio waves at a distance.

More than twenty years before, Nikola Tesla first lit a lamp by radio. He used a wave of a size that required a huge receiving coil of wire attached to the lamp. The other end of the coil was grounded, and the length of the wire was so chosen as to be exactly “in tune” with the broadcasting station hundreds of feet away.

What Dr. Thomas has done is to substitute for complicated receivers an ordinary piece of straight wire, made possible by the short wave he has produced. To pick up power from any radio wave, the rod, Dr. Thomas found, must be exactly half as long as the wave itself. Collecting current from a broadcasting wave would therefore require a rod of unwieldy length. With Dr. Thomas’ eight-foot wave, it need be only four feet long—a handy little rod to keep in your home!

The way that Dr. Thomas‘ “half-wave receiver,” as he calls it, picks up power from the air might be illustrated by placing a hollow tube half an “ocean wave length” long in the breakers at the seashore, pointing out to sea. One end of the tube would lie in the crest of an incoming wave. the other in the trough of the preceding one, and water would surge through it in one direction. A moment later, the crest would have reached the other end. the first end would be in a trough, and water would rush through it the other way. In the same manner an alternating surge of current runs back and forth along the metal rod from the radio waves in the air.

This much science already knows about the mechanics of generating and handling the radio power beam. But there will be more to learn— for the ray that Dr. Thomas seeks in his East Pittsburgh, laboratory, is a dangerous subject for experiment before scientists learn to control it. No one knows what might happen if such a beam were turned loose!

It might render the air through which it passed a conductor of electricity, much as does a bolt of lightning temporarily—and turn a shaft of air into an “electric wire” along which you could send an ordinary electric current. The radio beam, then, need not itself conduct the power, but serve simply as a channel for electricity.

For instance, an isolated mining camp in the face of an inaccessible mountain might receive electric power to run the mining machinery from a beam shot through the air from the base of the mountain.

One thing, Dr. Thomas says, is certain— with half the power of a modern broadcasting station behind it, a short-wave radio ray focused in a narrow beam of concentrated power would kill anyone who stepped in its way. Stray electric currents which it would induce in a man’s body would instantly burn him up. Here, then, is it veritable “death ray”—not a fantastic dream, Dr. Thomas points out, but like radio power a sober scientific possibility. In time of war, this ray would prove a terrible and awe-inspiring weapon. Radio rays of overwhelming power turned upon an enemy army would cause it to disappear in smoke. Along the radio beam might course powerful electric currents to complete the destruction.

BUT in its peacetime uses it would be of greatest service to man. High towers could be used to keep the deadly beam where it could do no harm as it transmitted vast quantities of power across the earth. At night a bluish glow would surround the transmitting tower from leakage of the high-tension current, and perhaps even the beam would glow like a searchlight piercing faint mist.

Smaller beams, less dangerous to man, might distribute the power at the receiving station. This would correspond roughly to the present system of using transformers to change the dangerous high-tension electric current used in wired power transmission into low pressure current safe for home use.

Into your home, perhaps straight through the wall, the ray would enter, while the “half-wave receiver” would absorb power to light your lamps—not ordinary lamps, but a special type of electric light built like a radio vacuum tube—and run your washing machine and electric toaster.

Can it be done? The “ifs” are merely matters of figures now. Scientists have taken away the mystery that cloaks radio power, and have shown how it is to be attained. Each by his own method, they are drawing nearer and nearer to its useful realization. With all the resources of great laboratories at their command, they are working out the last practical details. Any day, now, they may announce to a waiting world that at last the goal has been achieved.

Dr Phillip ThomasCourtesy of New York Electrical Society

Wireless light and power already have been achieved in the laboratory. Here Dr. Phillips Thomas, research engineer of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, is using radio impulse from the vacuum tube at left to light a small electric lamp attached to a copper “aerial” rod

P2-PowerAir1How radio eventually may supply our homes and industries with light, heat and power. Our artist pictures here his conception of a wonderful power transmission system of the future, based on present laboratory experiments. High power beams of short radio waves, projected for long distances by means of huge reflectors, would be tapped by receiving apparatus, much as we now tap broadcast radio programs.

P3-TeslaTow1The famous power tower at Shoreham, Long island designed by Nikola Tesla to transmit thousands of horsepower through the earth. It was dismantled at the outbreak of the European war. The inventor now plans to construct a similar tower at Niagara Falls.

TesPict5

Dr Harvey C RentschlerCourtesy New York Electrical Society

A remarkable concentration of radio power. Dr. Harvey C. Rentschler, Westinghouse research engineer, demonstrates his new type of “radio furnace” which melts metals in a vacuum. Powerful radio waves from the electric coil above Doctor Rentschler’s hand penetrate the adjacent vacuum tube and generate a terrific current in the metal within.

* END *

Here are the original pages.

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Tesla Newspaper Articles V

April 30, 2014

Here is a another Tesla articles I came across by accident, thanks to the Library of Congress, regards Arto.

TeslaArt-Salt

THE SALT LAKE HERALD SUNDAY JUNE 27 1897
STRANGEST MAN IN NEW YORK
Nikola Tesla and His Perpetual Motion Machine

New York June 25 -The strangest man in this city is unquestionably Nikola Tesla. Within the past fortnight he has astounded scientists the world over by his announcement that he had perfected his wireless telegraphy – in other words that he had sent and received communications between distant points without the use of wires and simply employing the natural energy the earth. Nature, he says, teems with power and motion.

Tesla is a young man. He has just past his fortieth birthday. If he lives 20 years or more and retains his faculties the world will be a different place to live in compared with today. His ideas and projects are so big that it takes time to grasp their real import. He talks as calmly of producing a flash of lightning a mile long as the ordinary man speaks of telegraphing to Chicago. Not long ago in his laboratory he said: ”I expect to live to be able to set a machine in the middle of this room and move it by the energy of no other agency than the medium in motion around us.”

This sounds like the vaporings of a dreamer. It means a perpetual motion machine, and that, in itself, is enough to stamp Tesla, in the minds of ordinary men as a full-fledged visionary.

But Tesla is the very acme of practicality in all things except money making. If he wished he could be a millionaire five times over. As it is, there are dozens of ordinary mechanics within a mile of his laboratory who could buy and sell him six times over. “If every man.” said Tesla, “who uses my machine in electro-terafy alone would give me a quarter of a dollar, I would be very wealthy. I have never received a dollar for it, and there is no way in which I could.

Tesla is I strange in all things. He will talk willingly about electrical inventions of the past, present and future, but it is like drawing teeth to him to say a word about himself. He has a genuine distaste for notoriety when Tesla, the man, is concerned, and politely asks to be let alone.

He ts a Montenegran by birth. His father was a man of unusual mental attainments, and his mother had the inventive genius to a considerable degree. “I am not much of a linguist,” says Tesla. “I speak but six or seven or eight languages. My father spoke 18, and, besides, he was a remarkable mathematician.”

Tesla is tall, thin and lanky, but quick and impulsive in manner and earnest in speech. He is not much of a talker, but every word he utters means something. His head is big and bony and his ears stick out. He is not a handsome man, by any means, but he is impressive. His hair is as black as hair can be, and is coarse and rumpled.

Physically he does not appear to he robust, but he says his constitution is rugged and he can stand almost any strain. In his youth he was a famous wrestler. He went in for all kinds of sport. The Montenegrans are rare gamblers, and Tesla inherited the national love of excitement over the card table. More than once in those days he went through single sittings of 48 hours at a stretch, and then only stopped because the other players had succumbed.

“I know the fascination of play,” he said, “but all the allurements of the game are insipid to me compared with the overmastering excitement of life in the laboratory. No thrill can go through the human frame like that felt by the Inventor as he sees the creation of his brain unfolding to success after months and years of waiting and hoping.” So Tesla does not gamble now, at least, not over the card table. His laboratory supplies all the excitement that his emotion can stand.

Tesla’s father was a clergyman of the Greek church, and it was intended that the son should fit himself for the same life. The idea of entering the ministry was opposed by the boy with such pertinacity that at last his father compromised by agreeing that he should become a professor or mathematics and physics. With that end in view Tesla was sent to the Polytechnic institute at Gratz, and there, in operation, was a gramme dynamo. That simple electrical instrument, the first that he had seen, settled the future calling of Tesla.

Prior to entering the Polytechnic at Gratz he had first attended a public school at Gospich, and later spent three years at the high school in Carstatt, Croatia. It was while he was here that he saw his first steam engine.

Immediately on entering the Polytechnic he began experimenting with electricity, and when his father heard of it there was a stiff family row, but the son came off victor, and instead of taking the course that would have fitted him for a college professorship of mathematics, he studied engineering. The gramme dynamo became his great pet, and while working about it he got the notion that it could be operated without commutator or brushes. This idea he labored over and experimented upon and finally after many years, it resulted in one of his greatest inventions, a rotating field motor.

The world owes a debt of gratitude to the little gramme dynamo, as it instigated the fundamental idea which subsequent elaborations and perfections by Tesla made possible several of the grandest mechanical feats that the world has ever known. When Tesla first came to this country, little I was known of the alternating current, and electrical energy was delivered almost entirely by the continuous current system. This is a successful method for short line work, but where the power is to be transmitted to a considerable distance it is impracticable.

One of Tesla’s inventions, based upon his first idea, was an alternating current motor that permitted the transmission of energy long distances at high pressure over the wires. This invention made possible the bridling of the power in Niagara, and natural forces by its use can be harnessed everywhere. Originally it was thought necessary to employ two wires for the transmission of power – one to convey it and the other to return it. Tesla proved that the second wire was a needless expense and that the energy could be transmitted with one wire with smaller waste than with two.

The bulk of Tesla’s income is derived from his invention in the rotating field, and it is not a large income either. He also receives a small sum from his fathers estate, and these are the sum total of his pecuniary resources. Nine-tenths of this money goes into his laboratory work. He spends next to nothing on himself. He is unmarried. He says an inventor has no business marrying, as the necessary home life would surely interfere with the prosecution of his labors.

From 12 to 18 hours a day he spends in his laboratory. He has no social life. He attended a reception once, was lionized by his hostess and the guests and spent the most unhappy hour of his life. Since then he has avoided social functions with assiduous care.

After leaving the school at Gratz Tesla went to Paris, but he attracted little attention, because his Ideas were then in their infancy and were of such magnificent calibre that the mere mention of them made the leading French electricians regard their originator as a fanciful dreamer. Some friend advised him to come to America. This he did, and, hunting up Thomas A. Edison soon convinced that genius that he was a valuable man to employ.

Tesla’s stay with Edison was brief. He had his own ideas, and, it is believed, they clashed with Edison’s. Tesla has never said much about this. Right here it should be mentioned that the Montenegrans has not the jealousy common among inventors. He never belittles the work of any man, and he has done more for young electricians Just starting out than any other dozen men of his profession.
GRANTLAND GRIEVE.

TeslaPicSaltsqNIKOLA TESLA, WHOSE ELECTRICAL CONTRIVANCES MAY MAKE A PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE A REALITY

Tesla’s Art of Individualization

March 22, 2014

Here is a link to my PDF file for my first draft of Tesla’s  Art of Individualization. Please consider a small donation so I can keep writing these types of articles, Regards Arto.

TeslaRecAndGate2aP1bArt-o-fIndavidual1

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Tesla Newspaper Articles IV

March 20, 2014

Here is the second part of the two part interview from the year 1905, again it is from Australia. Thanks to the National Archives in Canberra, regards Arto.

Tesla-Art1905-2b

The Daily News (Perth, WA) Monday 3 April 1905

NIKOLA TESLA.

(By Frank G. Carpenter in the Los Angeles “Illustrated Weekly Magazine.”)

II.

TESLA’S NEW INVENTIONS.

And , now to Mr. Tesla’s latest discoveries. If he has what he thinks he has he will revolutionise labor and give man greater benefits than have come from any inventor since the world began. Indeed, the statements made me tonight in the mouth of any other man would be a fair test of in sanity. But many of Tesla’s wild statements of the past have been verified by great working inventions. He said he could harness Niagara, and through his experiments in tho rotary magnetic fields Niagara is now furnishing a power equal to that of tens of thousands 0f horses, and electrical works are being run by the same principle all over the globe. The New York subway, for instance, is founded upon it, Tesla demonstrated that wireless telegraphy could be done in 1893, and it is a question whether his inventions in that field are not prior in those of Marconi or De Forrest.

Tonight he told me that he had almost completed inventions by which he could send electrical power lo any distance, without wires, and that in any quantity, small or great. Said he :—

“I have proved that power can be thus transmitted. Let us suppose I have my plant at Niagara and you are running a sugar factory in Australia ; by my discoveries ii will be possible to send you 100, 500, or 1,000 horsepower for your factory, and to supply the same regularly, by the force furnished from Niagara Falls. Suppose you are travelling in the wilds of the Andes and make your camp on the shores of Lake Titicaca. By the outcome of this principle you may have telegraphed to you the instantaneous reports of the news of tho world as it happens from time to time. You may cook your dinner over an electric fire thus transmitted, and you may have the same at will on any part cf the globe. We shall be able to send power from place to place at will, and that at such a small cost that it will be industrially profitable.”

THE TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY WITHOUT WIRES.

“How did you discover that this might be done, Mr. Tesla ?” I asked.

“I have been for years working on the transmission of electrical energy, and, in 1898 established a laboratory on the edge of the Rocky Mountains, near Colorado Springs, My laboratory, there was over 6,000ft, high, higher than the top of Mount Washington, and I had extraordinary conditions for my experiments. Colorado is famous for its natural displays of electrical force. The earth at times is alive with electrical vibrations, and the air is full of electricity. I have seen 12,000 lightning discharges with in two hours, and all within a radius of 30 miles of my laboratory. These discharges were of great violence, some of them looking like trees of fire on the heavens. It was among such discharges that I had my electrical instruments, and studied the principles of electricity transmission through the earth and air. One day while watching the lightning I noticed that the discharges afar off often affected the instruments in my laboratory more than those near by. Upon examination I found that this could not be caused by the difference of intensity in the individual charges.”

“What could it be ?”

“Through instruments made for the purpose I tested the matter from time to time and finally came to the conclusion that the vibrations caused by the lightning moved around the world, and that there were stationary waves, I could gauge the discharges near the laboratory and see them fade away, and, after a certain fixed period, find   them returning almost with no loss of power. In short, this planet, big as it is, was acting as a conductor, and I became convinced that upon it not only telegraphic messages, but also the modulations of the human voice and electrical power in unlimited amounts, could’ be carried around the entire globe, and sent to any part of it with hardly any perceptible loss. With my transmitter I actually sent electrical vibrations around the world and resolved them again, and I then went on to develop my machinery. I had, as I have told you, been studying and inventing along the lines electrical   transmission, and was ready to take advantage of my discovery. I have   since so improved the means of individualisation and isolation that such energy may be sent in any amount to any fixed place without danger of its going elsewhere or affecting others,   and I believe the individualisation can be carried out to almost any degree.”

NIAGARA FOR THE WORLD.

“Will this enable the power of Niagara to be sent anywhere over the world ?”

“Yes, I have been experimenting at my laboratory on Long Island. I have machinery and buildings there which have cost in the neighborhood of £70,000, and the results show me that a plant could be erected at Niagara which can transmit its force to any place, desired. I am designing such a plant now at my laboratory, and would have had it completed had it not been for unforeseen delays, which have nothing to do with its technical features. The design which I have adopted will have a transmitter which will emit a wave complex of a total maximum activity of 10,000,000 horse- power, one per cent, of which is enough to girdle the globe. This enormous rate of energy delivery – it is twice, as much as the force of Niagara Falls – is obtainable only by the use of certain artifices which I shall make known some time in the future.

“We have been offered 10,000 horse- power from the Canadian Power Company. What I want to do is to build machinery there and transmit this power to various parts of the globe. The value of that amount of horsepower would be about £40,000 per year, and a plant erected to take advantage of it will pay large dividends.”

“How much would the plant cost?”

“It might cost in the neighborhood of £400,000, but its value would be enormous, and its success would revolutionise the working forces of the globe. It would result in other plants being erected at other places, and in the utilisation of all the great waterfalls for the work of man.”

MOTHER EARTH PUT TO WORK.

“By this invention every live part of mother earth’s body would he brought into action. Energy will be collected all over the globe in amounts small or large, as it may exist, ranging from a fraction of one to a few horsepower or more. Every waterfall can be utilised, every coalfield made to produce energy to be transmitted to vast distances, and every place on earth can have power at small cost. One of the minor uses might be the illumination of isolated homes. We could light houses all over the country, by means of vacuum tubes operated by high frequency currents. We could keep the clocks of the United States going and give everyone exact time; we could turn factories, machine shops and mills, small or large, anywhere, and I believe could also navigate the air.

THE TRANSMISSION OF INTELLIGENCE.

“One of the most important features of this invention,’ said Mr. Tesla, “‘will be the transmission of intelligence. It will convert the entire earth into a huge brain, capable of responding in every one of its parts. By the employment of a number of plants, each of which can transmit signals to all parts of the world, the news of the globe will be flashed to all points. A cheap and simple receiving device, which might be carried in one’s pocket, can be set up anywhere on sea or land, and it will record the world’s news as it occurs, or take such special messages as are intended for it. If you are in the heart of the Sahara, your wife can telegraph to you from Washington, and if the instrument is properly made you alone will get the message. A single plant of a few horsepower could operate hundreds of such instruments, so that the invention has an infinite working capacity, and will cheapen the transmission of all kinds of intelligence.”

Tesla Newspaper Articles III

March 20, 2014

Here is another Tesla article, this is the first part of a two part interview from the year 1905, I will post the second part in the next blog entry, again it is from Australia. Thanks to the National Archives in Canberra, regards Arto.

Tesla-Art1905-2a

The Daily News (Perth, WA) Saturday 1 April 1905

NIKOLA TESLA.

(By, Frank G. Carpenter in the Los Angeles “Illustrated Weekly, Magazine.”)

I give you to-day the substance of two remarkable talks with Nikola Tesla. The first I had in his laboratory on East Houston Street, nine years ago last September. The second was held in the Waldorf tonight.

The first interview was most interesting, giving a wonderful insight into Tesla the inventor and Tesla the man, but it was never published, for Mr. Tesla, at its close, on the ground of business reasons, begged that I say nothing about him for months to come. I wrote out the notes, however, and laid them away, and when I met Mr. Tesla tonight I told him I now intended to use them. At the same time we had the most extraordinary conversation about his recent discoveries and inventions as to the transmission of force, which I reproduce in the latter part of this article.

TESLA THE MAN.

First take a glance at Tesla the man. He looked more like an Italian savant than a hard working inventor when I saw him in the Waldorf tonight. He was in evening dress, and was the most striking figure of the score of public men who stood about the lobby. Mr. Tesla is now 47 years of age, and is in his physical and intellectual prime. He is tall and slender, his head is long, thin and intellectual, with a forehead high and full. He was born in Hungary and educated there, but he speaks English perfectly, and is one of the most charming conversationalists I have ever met. During my chat of some years ago he talked of his boyhood. His father was a clergyman of the Greek Church, and Nikola was intended for the priesthood. He had a brother older than himself, whom the rest of the family, considered much brighter. That brother died young, and this so crazed his father and mother that it took them long to realise the genius of Nikola. If he stood well in his studies his father’s eyes would fill as he thought how much better, perhaps, the other son might have done, and whatever Nikola did was always compared with the possible work of the boy who had passed away. His first education was in the public schools of Gospich, and after that he went to the Real Schule at Karlstadt. As he went on with his studies he liked mathematics so much that he intended to fit himself to be a professor of mathematics and physics, and with that view studied at the Polytechnic School at Gratz. He changed to the engineering course, and later on stud- ied philosophy and languages in the colleges at Prague and Budapest. He has since been made a doctor of laws by Yale and Columbia. Shortly after completing his studies Mr. Tesla was associated with the Government of Austria-Hungary in the telegraph engineering department, where he invented several improvements. From there he went to Paris, to be engineer of a large lighting company, and thence to the United States, where he was employed by Thomas Edison in his laboratory. His next position was that of electrician to the Tesla Electric Light Company, and at the same time he established the Tesla laboratory, from which his great inventions have come.

TESLA THE INVENTOR.

During my chat with Mr. Tesla I asked him when he first realised that he had the inventive faculty, and he told me he had always been inventing something or other. When he was quite a small boy he made toy guns, which would shoot birds, and as he was the only one who could make them he supplied the boys of his neighborhood. He made clocks at eight or nine years of age, and began to dabble in electricity before he was in his teens. His first determination to devote his life to invention came shortly after he went to London to deliver a lecture before a scientific society there. At this lecture he met Lord Rayleigh, the great physicist, and showed him some of his experiments. Rayleigh said that he had undoubtedly the faculty of discovery and that he would succeed as an inventor. “Shortly after this my mother died,” said Mr. Tesla, “and I concluded to exert this power. Lord Rayleigh had said I possessed it, and, upon examining myself, I believed him correct. I did not want to waste my powers on small things, and I decided to strive towards something that would benefit humanity. I am working on an invention for the transmission of force. This invention will, I believe, revolutionise the world of labor. I am also working on electricity, and I cannot remember when I was not working more or less in the direction of a successful flying machine. My idea as to that is along different lines than any yet proposed, and I expect to see it realised. Indeed, we shall eventually have flying machines that will be large enough to carry crowds through the air. They must be large in order to succeed”. These words were uttered by Mr.Tesla nine years ago. Today he says he has completed his force transmission invention, as will be seen, by my Waldorf conversation, which follows. He has also done other things which he proposed in that interview. Remember, it was before the time of the wireless telegraph, but he then said to me the following:—   “I tell, you, we are on the threshold of a new era. We have only begun to master the great forces of Nature, and the inventions of the next few decades will be far superior to any of the past. What would you think of standing on the shore and telephoning to your friend in midocean? What of being in the centre of a room and making your whole body blaze with light? What of sending power to and fro over tho earth at will and making it do its work anywhere, and almost anyhow?

HOW IT FEELS TO INVENT.

Mr. Tesla told me that his greatest pleasure was in his work, and that he could conceive no moment so exciting and rapturous as that connected with the discovery of a new principle which, when put into use, would revolutionise the work of the world. Take, for instance, the invention which brought forth the apparatus used in the transmission of power at Niagara Falls. Said he, as he took me to a great coil of wire wound round a stationary magnet, which was connected with the dynamo, and held above it a little globe in which was a steel wheel moving on a pivot: “I had been working on that experiment for a long time, and this was the test. I know that if I were correct the wheel in this globe, would revolve as soon as I turned on the electricity. It did revolve, and I know. I had discovered  what would revolutionise the labor of tho world. You can run all sorts of power by that principle. You can take power from Niagara and bring it to New York. The cars can be pulled by it, factories run, houses heated and dinners cooked. I cannot describe my sensation when I saw the wheel revolve. I thought I should go crazy, and I went home, to my laboratory and took some bromide of potassium to quiet me. “It has been the same in some of my experiments with electric lights and other things. No 1 the greatest rapture one can have is to discover a new force or series of forces which will reduce man’s working necessities to the minimum. I do not believe in laziness, and I should like to see the loafer wiped from the face of the earth, but I want that those who are willing, to work should accomplish their results with the least labor and in the best way,”

HOW TESLA WORKS.

As to Mr. Tesla himself, there is no harder worker known. He told me that he seldom slept more than four hours of a night, and during some periods not more than three. When in the thick of a new invention it was hard to sleep. His work in always with him, and he says that his mind sometimes works in his sleep. He awakes in the morning to find that the problem which had worried him when he went to bed has been practically solved overnight. He has always been a light sleeper. His mother died at 70 and she never took more than four hours sleep. His father also was a light sleeper. Tesla is a peculiar worker. Failures do not trouble him.  After he undertakes a thing and decides that it should come out a certain way, he keeps on experimenting and experimenting, believing in his success. He says that if he doubted his ability it would make him crazy. He seems to have a dual mind. He told me that he often found himself carrying on two trains of thought at the same time, and said that while he was talking to me he could see the figures of some of his calculations behind me and could carry them on at the same time. He is always figuring. His scrap basket is filled with the calculations which he has torn up and thrown away. He keeps a record of his experiments, and when his laboratory was burned some years ago he lost the work of years in ideas and suggestions which had thus been recorded. (To be continued on Monday)

Tesla Newspaper Articles II

March 17, 2014

Here is another set of Tesla articles, from the years 1901 to 1907, again it is from Australia. Thanks to the National Archives in Canberra, regards Arto.

Tesla-Art1901-1

The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, (Parramatta, NSW) Wednesday 27, February 1901

TESLA LIGHT.      MARS.

The system by which Mr. Nikola Tesla hopes to be able to signal Mars. Mr. Tesla recently said to an interviewer : — ” It seems to me that only men absolutely stricken with blindness can hold that the earth is the sole planet inhabited by intelligent beings. I have perfected my transmitting apparatus to the extent that I can understand to construct a machine which, without a doubt will be fully competent to convey sufficient energy to Mars to operate delicate appliances such as are used here. Since we ourselves are so far advanced, is it unreasonable to believe in the possibility that of the 20 or 25 planets of the solar system, one, if  not more, may be ahead of us in evolution ? The time has arrived for the electrician to join the astronomer in the explanation of neighbouring worlds.

Fourth planet from sun (140 millions of miles distant). Diameter — little more than half the earth’s Atmosphere like ours. The black signifies water; the white, land. Note the wonderful canal system, proving that the Martians are highly civilised.

Tesla-Art1901-2

Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald & General Advertiser Thursday 18 July 1901

TESLA’S ACHIEVEMENTS.

In a recent interview, Mr. Tesla gives the following description of some of his recent achievements :-“With a small engine, capable of pressing a piston backward and forward with a force of but two pounds, I have set an entire block of modern buildings, by careful attunement, into such a swaying that the people rushed out affrighted. With an impressed force of a fraction of a pound I caused steel rings of several square inches cross-section, capable of supporting several   hundred tons, to vibrate and form loops like thin piano wires, until they finally broke.”

Tesla-Art1905-1

The World’s News (Sydney, NSW) Saturday, 24 June, 1905

Tesla Patents.

“A” broad field has apparently opened to tho electrical world   with the expiration, of the three patents granted Nikola Tesla in 1888, covering fundamentally the rotary field type of electric motor. But the actual situation developed by the expiration of these patents is slightly obscured by the patent granted Tesla on the split phase motor in 1890, which still remains in force. The electro-magnetic rotating field was discovered by Professor Galileo Ferraris, of Italy, and on a broad application of the rotating field to alternating current motors the first Tesla patents were issued.   Courts have held broadly, in a number of decisions in litigation concerning these three patents, that they cover the system of producing power from an electric motor by means of the rotary field. Hence it seems reasonable to assume the principle of the rotary field is released to the world of invention by their expiration, in audition, in so far as the split phase patents are concerned, the   invention of this principle by Tesla was denied   by two Courts, one of these decisions being sustained on appeal, and the other reversed. But it remains to be decided by those interested to what extent the line of subsidiary patents issued during the life of the fundamental patents   may narrow the field opened by the termination of the latter.

Tesla-Art1907-1

The Daily News (Perth, WA) Saturday 19 October 1907

NIKOLA TESLA.
Nikola Tesla, the American scientist, says coal is a “back number,” and that we shall soon be driving machinery, running railway trains, sailing steamships, cooking food, and lighting streets and houses by power obtained direct from the sun.

Tesla Newspaper Articles I

March 17, 2014

I have made  a life long study in researching archives of many types of historical and technical articles for many years, so I decided to focus on one of my favorite people, Nikola Tesla. These are from papers printed and published in Australia, I also decided to include part of the page where his articles reside, it gives you an understanding of the events and cultural times of his era.  Thanks to the National Archives of Canberra. Regards Arto.

Tesla-Art1933-1

The Sydney Morning Herald, NSW, Friday 3 November 1933

COSMIC ENERGY

To Drive World Machinery.

INVENTOR’S CLAIM.
NEW YORK. NOV. 1.

Nikola Tesla, a well-known physicist and inventor, in a signed statement today, announced the discovery of a principle whereby power for driving the machinery of the world may be derived from the cosmic energy operating the universe.
The principle, which taps the source of power described as “everywhere present In unlimited quantities,” and which may be transmitted by wire or wireless from a central plant in any part of the globe, will, he says, eliminate the need for coal, oil, gas, or any other common fuels, and will soon be ready for use, and, while the present form will require central plants employing vast machinery, he popes to work out a plan for its use by Individuals.

Tesla-Art1935-1

The Sydney Morning Herald, NSW, Friday 12 July 1935

TESLA’S BIRTHDAY.
COSMIC RAY REVELATIONS.

Speed 50 Times Greater Than Light.

NEW YORK, July 11.

Mr. Nikola Tesla, the holder of 700 patents, celebrated his 79th birthday anniversary today in his customary fashion by revealing the seemingly incredible advances that he is making in the field of electro-physics. He said that he had completed studies which “knocked the props” from under the theory of relativity. He said that he had measured the velocities of the cosmic ray from Antares, which he found to be 50 times greater than the speed of light, which relativity proponents contended to be the maximum speed of the physical universe.
Mr. Tesla, referring to two electrical inventions, described one as “apparatus by which mechanical energy can be transmitted to any part of the terrestrial globe.” He said that it had many practical applications, such as providing a new and unfailing means of communication, and a safe means of guiding ships at sea.
Of the other invention he said: “It will be considered absolutely impossible by competent electrical engineers.” He described it as a new apparatus for producing direct current without a commutator, whereby aeroplanes and even lorries and railway trains could be operated by electric power from a disconnected station.

Tesla-Art1936-1

The Sydney Morning Herald, NSW, Monday, July 13, 1936

POWER BY WIRELESS.

Nikola Tesla’s Claim.

NEW YORK, July 11.

M. Nikola Tesla, the noted inventor and electrician, celebrated his 80th birthday by announcing an invention for transmitting power without wires.
He predicted that the development of wireless power would overshadow his other accomplishments. Thus, power developed at Muscle Shoals could be transmitted to England, China, and Little America, with equal ease, and at comparatively little cost.
He added that several European Governments had promised their co-operation. A plant for the exploitation of the invention will be installed in some place in Europe within a year, he claims. The scheme will utilise one hundred million volts, compared with eighteen million volts which, it is stated, is the maxi- mum so far attained in any laboratory.
[Dr. Edgar Booth, of the University of Sydney, said last night: “M. Tesla, as a younger man, made a number of important contributions to the development of science, particularly in the field of electrical phenomena, but he has not been In active scientific work for some years. A similar announcement was given out in the name of M. Tesla at least six months ago, but nothing further happened. Although we appreciate the brilliance of his   earlier work, it would be inadvisable to attach a great amount of importance to the reported discovery until some further particulars are available. There is no doubt that ultimately some method may be obtained by means of which radio energy will be transmitted in a given direction without dissipation, but at the present time there is no practicable scheme which could compete in any way with transmission by wire.”]