Archive for the ‘Technology’ Category

Wireless Power 1917

November 11, 2015

This article is from Popular Science Monthly, what a great read, and a very concise look at what the current developments were at the time, be it the theories or practical applications this article will be most interesting.

Popular Science

Popular Science Monthly
JULY 1917
SUMNER N. BLOSSQM Editor
VOL III. No 1

Wireless Power——The Next Great Invention

Electrical Experts, in Amazing Experiments, Reveal How Radio Beams Soon May Light and Heat Our Homes

By ALDEN P. ARMAGNAC

In a New York lecture hall a few nights ago. a group of engineers watched a scientist raise in his hand an electric light bulb. To it was attached a four-foot copper rod. A short distance away a radio vacuum tube was turned on—-and instantly the bulb glowed brilliantly!

This was “radio power,” dream of scientists. On a laboratory scale, Dr. Phillips Thomas, research engineer of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, had demonstrated before the New York Electrical Society how near scientists had come to the transmission of energy without wires between cities and across country.

Tomorrow, radio beams of power may light and heat your home. Electric waves surging without wires through the earth and the ether may drive airplanes, automobiles and trains. Instead of the present uneconomical use of coal in small power plants scattered through every country, a few monster central stations may generate all of the world’s power, which may he tapped by an aerial or a grounded wire at any point on the earth’s surface. Isolated homes as well as the factories of a metropolis will share equally in the wealth of available power by wireless. Such a prophecy for the future is well within the limits of possibility, in this wonder age of science. A few months ago. no one dreamed that soon you would be able to see by radio—-yet now we have television! Will radio power be the next great invention? Many scientists are at work on it today—and at any moment it may he realized on a practical scale. The idea of transmitting power with out wires is not new. Heinrich Hertz, discoverer of radio waves. tested its possibility and found it feasible. Nikola Tesla, celebrated inventor. Who devised a system of wired power to transmit alternating electric currents, now in use throughout the world, has experimented in the field for years. Even now he is designing an amazing wireless power plant to he erected at Niagara Falls. Dr. Charles Steinmetz. one of the greatest electricians the world has known, was a firm believer in future wireless  power and suggested a method by which it might be achieved. Senator Marconi, father of radio communication adds his expert opinion that power by radio is near.

Only recently Marconi told the Institution of Civil Engineers in London that the transmission of power by electrical waves awaited only the perfection of devices for projecting the waves in parallel beams in such a manner as to minimize dispersion and diffusion of the energy into space.

The ordinary broadcasting station projects random waves in all directions that follow outward paths like the spokes of a cartwheel. A few miles away, you could not collect power enough to run your watch. But Marconi has invented a radio reflector that concentrates the waves in one direction, bunching them all together, as between two adjacent spokes of the wheel. In his system a number of short “aerials” are arranged in a curved row at the back of the main broadcasting antenna to reflect the waves it emits in a beam with parallel or at most slightly fan-shaped edges. Between London and Canada, and elsewhere. this type of “beam radio” has produced strong signals for radio telegraphy at a distance where ordinary signals would be weak and inaudible.

A “magnifying transmitter,” that hurls electric currents at millions of volts into the earth, to be recovered as power at any point on its surface, is the invention of Nikola Tesla. “The transmission of power without wires is not a theory or a mere possibility.” this wizard of electricity told me recently. “It is a fact which I myself have demonstrated in numerous practical experiments, conducted on a large scale with a generator of 1500 kilowatts capacity. As long ago as 1899 I found that the current from my magnifying transmitter traverses the globe and returns to its origin with undiminished strength. This at forded evidence that there was virtually no loss in the transmission through the earth: and that by a properly organized apparatus at the sending and receiving stations, power in industrial amounts could be transmitted with an efficiency as high as ninety-nine and a half percent.”

To TRANSMIT power through the earth, Dr. Tesla said, he plans to erect at Niagara a huge tower similar to the one he had partially completed on Long Island N. Y., when it was destroyed at the outbreak of the European war. Contrary to popular opinion, neither that nor the improved structure he proposes is a radio tower. Like some gigantic pile driver, it will jar the earth, not the air, with artificial thunderbolts manufactured in its mushroom like dome.

In the sky, as well as the earth, may lie the secret of wireless power. A study of huge sparks, some of them 400 feet long, that Tesla has produced in his laboratory, has shown that in the rarefied upper atmosphere electricity could travel with surprising ease, though at ground level it takes thousands of volts to produce a spark a few inches long.

Other experiments have shown that the levels at which such a low of electric power could be produced are within a reasonable distance of the earth,—say 30.000 feet above sea level. This has led Hugh Pollard, a British engineer, to suggest monster towers reaching into the clouds and topped by captive balloons, to feed power at millions of volts into the vast conducting layer of the upper air. At other points on the earth’s surface, such as Mount McKinley with its 20,000 foot peak in Alaska. Mount Whitney in California, and Mont Blane in France, similar towers would withdraw the power for distribution.

At the poles. Pollard points out, this conducting layer of air is probably much nearer, perhaps only a mile high, because here the rotating force of the whirling earth is little felt. and does not pull the atmosphere away from the surface, as it does at the equator. A polar power plant might therefore feed power more easily into the aerial electric reservoir. Moreover, the exploring parties of Vilhjalmur Stefansson and of Capt. Donald MacMillan in the Far North, and of Sir Ernest Shackleton, Roald Amundsen, and Capt. Robert F. Scott in Antarctic regions have reported that vast stores of coal, and occasionally oil, exist near the poles. There would be no lack of fuel, then, to run the plants—fuel that now lies unused simply because the cost of transporting it to civilization would be too great.

HOW well the theory of a low conducting air level at the poles agrees with fact is likely soon to be known. Arctic explorers invariably return with accounts of strange displays of northern lights—a weirdly beautiful electric phenomenon still not fully understood, but known to have a definite connection with the electrified upper air. The most recent polar expeditions have collected masses of scientific data taken from auroral observations, which may confirm the existence of such a low-hanging layer. The amazing system of wireless power proposed by Dr. Steinmetz, the exact opposite of Tesla’s “earth power,” was to girdle the earth with power from the outside instead of from within. A broadcasting station, he said, might emit a wave of tremendous strength—millions of horsepower—that would circle the earth and return to its starting point. If the wave length were properly chosen, such a wave would have lost only a small part of its power by the time it completed its journey, and would continue its circuit many times. The broadcasting station would time its successive waves so accurately that the first one  returned at the exact moment that a similar one was being sent out. The only additional power required. then, to keep the waves going would be to make up the slight loss in transmission, as long as no power was being withdrawn. When some receiving station “tuned-in” to withdraw the wireless power, it would “leave a hole in the wave” that the broadcasting station would make up by supplying an additional amount. Many stations scattered over the world could feed power into the wave, each one carefully timed to emit its waves just as the main wave passed by.

“Radio power” of another sort was used by Dr. Harvey C. Rentschler, like Dr. Thomas a Westinghouse research engineer, to perform a feat that had baffled chemists for years. He demonstrated his apparatus on the same night that Dr. Thomas disclosed his method of transmitting power without wires. In a new type of “radio furnace“ that melts metals in a vacuum. Dr. Rentschler succeeded in obtaining the rare metal uranium in a solid mass for the first time. The device that accomplished this remarkable result and thereby inaugurated a new science- “radio-chemistry ”—was designed to focus a large quantity of radio power in a small space, rather than transmit it to a distance.

When Dr. Rentschler threw a switch that turned on the current, radio waves from a powerful electric coil pierced the emptiness of the vacuum to generate a terrific electric current in a small capsule of impure powder containing uranium. There was a flash, and incandescent metal swelled to a molten mass. When it cooled, Dr. Rentschler was the first man in the world to see what this extremely heavy metal looked like. Much like iron in its grayish appearance, it was far more precious than platinum.

Other rare metals of like properties yielded their secrets to Dr. Rentschler when placed in the vacuum and heated by radio waves. The new furnace is of inestimable value to chemists, who can now watch reactions they could never see before that can take place only at high temperatures, in a vacuum.

With radio power in a test tube already achieved, will the next step be radio power in your home? Very likely, Dr. Thomas told the scientists who witnessed his demonstrations of lamp-lighting by radio.

Already he can transmit power without wires over a short distance. With improved vacuum tubes and electric circuits, he said, he hoped to improve his power transmission until he produced a type of wireless wave that would yield a space-annihilating beam over which huge quantities of power might be sent.

Short radio waves, ten thousand times shorter than those used in broadcasting, are the means Dr. Thomas will use. His goal is a “beam radio”—but a beam unlike any that has ever been produced. If he can make his radio waves short enough and powerful enough—he will focus them to a narrow, four-inch ray by means of a curved metal mirror!

Then he will project his beam, like a searchlight, to its destination. Such rays would criss-cross a city, and wires would become obsolete. Each home would have its own “rod receiver,” a short copper wire, resembling the one Dr. Thomas used in his demonstration, with which you could tap the power flowing through the ether just as you now listen-in to music with your radio set.

The idea of reflecting radio waves with mirrors may seem a little startling, but your own experience will yield the evidence in its favor. The silvered reflector of your car’s headlight concentrates its rays in a parallel beam. Light waves and radio waves are closely related to each other, differing only in their length; the waves of light are much shorter. Could radio waves, like light, be focused?

In between light and radio are heat waves—of medium length. Like light waves. they too can be obtained of short wave and maximum power. The radio wave that furnished the wireless current supply was only two and four-tenths meters—about eight feet long; yet through it he was able to “broadcast” thirty watts, about a twentieth of a horsepower. He can produce a wave of half that length, though his power is also cut in half.

To try out his scheme of reflecting a beam with a metal mirror, Dr. Thomas awaits the shorter-wave, higher-power beam he hopes to obtain. In his demonstration he allowed his radio waves to scatter at random through the surrounding air, and his feat of transmitting an appreciable amount of power was therefore the more remarkable.

DR THOMAS is not the first scientist to light lamps by radio; his simplified apparatus, rather than the demonstration of wireless light, is his greatest accomplishment. Nearly four years ago, Dr. Willis R. Whitney, of the General Electric Company, demonstrated before the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Cincinnati what he then characterized as an advance “as near to the wireless transmission of power as we have yet seen.” Standing a foot away from a powerful electric coil through which alternating current was pulsing at high frequency he held up a lamp bulb like those in your home and caused it to glow by wireless power. This experiment follows the same principle as Dr. Rentschler’s radio furnace, instead of Dr. Thomas’ method of using radio waves at a distance.

More than twenty years before, Nikola Tesla first lit a lamp by radio. He used a wave of a size that required a huge receiving coil of wire attached to the lamp. The other end of the coil was grounded, and the length of the wire was so chosen as to be exactly “in tune” with the broadcasting station hundreds of feet away.

What Dr. Thomas has done is to substitute for complicated receivers an ordinary piece of straight wire, made possible by the short wave he has produced. To pick up power from any radio wave, the rod, Dr. Thomas found, must be exactly half as long as the wave itself. Collecting current from a broadcasting wave would therefore require a rod of unwieldy length. With Dr. Thomas’ eight-foot wave, it need be only four feet long—a handy little rod to keep in your home!

The way that Dr. Thomas‘ “half-wave receiver,” as he calls it, picks up power from the air might be illustrated by placing a hollow tube half an “ocean wave length” long in the breakers at the seashore, pointing out to sea. One end of the tube would lie in the crest of an incoming wave. the other in the trough of the preceding one, and water would surge through it in one direction. A moment later, the crest would have reached the other end. the first end would be in a trough, and water would rush through it the other way. In the same manner an alternating surge of current runs back and forth along the metal rod from the radio waves in the air.

This much science already knows about the mechanics of generating and handling the radio power beam. But there will be more to learn— for the ray that Dr. Thomas seeks in his East Pittsburgh, laboratory, is a dangerous subject for experiment before scientists learn to control it. No one knows what might happen if such a beam were turned loose!

It might render the air through which it passed a conductor of electricity, much as does a bolt of lightning temporarily—and turn a shaft of air into an “electric wire” along which you could send an ordinary electric current. The radio beam, then, need not itself conduct the power, but serve simply as a channel for electricity.

For instance, an isolated mining camp in the face of an inaccessible mountain might receive electric power to run the mining machinery from a beam shot through the air from the base of the mountain.

One thing, Dr. Thomas says, is certain— with half the power of a modern broadcasting station behind it, a short-wave radio ray focused in a narrow beam of concentrated power would kill anyone who stepped in its way. Stray electric currents which it would induce in a man’s body would instantly burn him up. Here, then, is it veritable “death ray”—not a fantastic dream, Dr. Thomas points out, but like radio power a sober scientific possibility. In time of war, this ray would prove a terrible and awe-inspiring weapon. Radio rays of overwhelming power turned upon an enemy army would cause it to disappear in smoke. Along the radio beam might course powerful electric currents to complete the destruction.

BUT in its peacetime uses it would be of greatest service to man. High towers could be used to keep the deadly beam where it could do no harm as it transmitted vast quantities of power across the earth. At night a bluish glow would surround the transmitting tower from leakage of the high-tension current, and perhaps even the beam would glow like a searchlight piercing faint mist.

Smaller beams, less dangerous to man, might distribute the power at the receiving station. This would correspond roughly to the present system of using transformers to change the dangerous high-tension electric current used in wired power transmission into low pressure current safe for home use.

Into your home, perhaps straight through the wall, the ray would enter, while the “half-wave receiver” would absorb power to light your lamps—not ordinary lamps, but a special type of electric light built like a radio vacuum tube—and run your washing machine and electric toaster.

Can it be done? The “ifs” are merely matters of figures now. Scientists have taken away the mystery that cloaks radio power, and have shown how it is to be attained. Each by his own method, they are drawing nearer and nearer to its useful realization. With all the resources of great laboratories at their command, they are working out the last practical details. Any day, now, they may announce to a waiting world that at last the goal has been achieved.

Dr Phillip ThomasCourtesy of New York Electrical Society

Wireless light and power already have been achieved in the laboratory. Here Dr. Phillips Thomas, research engineer of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, is using radio impulse from the vacuum tube at left to light a small electric lamp attached to a copper “aerial” rod

P2-PowerAir1How radio eventually may supply our homes and industries with light, heat and power. Our artist pictures here his conception of a wonderful power transmission system of the future, based on present laboratory experiments. High power beams of short radio waves, projected for long distances by means of huge reflectors, would be tapped by receiving apparatus, much as we now tap broadcast radio programs.

P3-TeslaTow1The famous power tower at Shoreham, Long island designed by Nikola Tesla to transmit thousands of horsepower through the earth. It was dismantled at the outbreak of the European war. The inventor now plans to construct a similar tower at Niagara Falls.

TesPict5

Dr Harvey C RentschlerCourtesy New York Electrical Society

A remarkable concentration of radio power. Dr. Harvey C. Rentschler, Westinghouse research engineer, demonstrates his new type of “radio furnace” which melts metals in a vacuum. Powerful radio waves from the electric coil above Doctor Rentschler’s hand penetrate the adjacent vacuum tube and generate a terrific current in the metal within.

* END *

Here are the original pages.

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WirelessPS4a-gry

The Democracy of Battery Charging

May 17, 2015

by Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2015

(This is still in a preliminary stage of writing for a chapter in my next Volume, please excuse any errors)

I originally chose to call it “The Battery Charging Switching Method (BCSM)”, but due to a clear reasoning I renamed it. Each battery in turn is used to power the load and all the differences between batteries are constantly harmonized and balanced while using the differences as outputs for creative applications. Now if we could only run a real government using these principals we really would have something happily called democracy, at the moment what they call democracy is a painted mask hiding the oligarchs who glean there riches from the public under the guise of true government. This is the same as using willing slaves to turn the cranks of generators to power the load of one single machine that return no excess power back to the prime movers energy stores, to help recharge them, just in case the prime movers decide to build up its own energy reserves and maybe divert any excess to improving efficiency and lower the cost of distribution, this is pure heresy to the pyramidal control structure.

I was fascinated by the announcement back in the 90’s of a Tesla Switch, I decided to investigate, I found no credible source for the name Tesla for this scheme anywhere, so I dismissed the title and looked at the circuit. First I noticed the whole scheme needed either a mechanical , rotary or electronic driving mechanism, so the switching had to use power to activate. Secondly I noticed the load connections had some problem with the simple fact that the use of polarized capacitors in a possible oscillating system, this was interesting as the load was connected to the negative rail on both capacitors. Ignoring these issues, I had to stretch my imagination to include differentials of polarizations on either side of the system might account for a charge pushing through the load. Yes I could see if you swapped the batteries from 12v single to 12v parallel you would develop a differential if either battery was not exactly equal in charge, this was the first inkling that this was not completely bogus.

I began analyzing this simple switching system and found this as my first breakdown.

Tesla Switch (Brandt)

It looks like the original switching scheme was meant to drive a load between two earth rails, as this is not a design that would be advantageous to the whole idea of recharging the batteries and drive a load, I would need to see if the charging battery idea is worthy of its implication as scheme of merit.

Here I have the switching idea of Benitiz, and I must say his understanding of this is worthy of his patent.

Benitiz Battery Charger

As you can witness, Benitiz’s idea that by a simply putting 2 batteries in series and 2 batteries in parallel is a way of increasing the voltage in the parallel set 12v with the higher 24v of the series set, where the amperage capability has increased with the parallel set and with the difference in potential increased in the series set while and the internal resistance has been reduced in parallel and increased in series. Let us break this down into different types of analogs:

Audio frequency of tubes

– The resonant frequency decreases when two pipes are in series, where air current flow capability is the same and decreases due to greater frictional surface area
– The resonant frequency stays the same when two pipes are in parallel, where air current flow capability increases with the resistance also reduced as the volume increases greater than the resistive surface area.

In this case, the parallel system will develop a greater differential and an increase of air current volume, which could be translated into an volume flow transducers, thus moving energy out of the system by a translational device.
The parallel system uses a longitudinal pressure wave where the volume increase in the direction of flow and there is also resistance against the body of the tube which has greater increases in the serial version and is due to the surface area in contact with the vibrating air.

Sound - Series Parallel

Pressure of water in tubes connected

– Pressure increases when two pipes are in series (elevation differential), where water current flow rate capability decreases and greater frictional surface area decreases the flow
– Pressure stays the same in parallel, where current flow capability increases

In this case, the parallel system will develop a smaller differential but an increase of water current volume, which could be translated into an volume flow transducers, thus moving energy out of the system by a translational device.
The parallel system uses a pressure bow where the volume increase in the direction of flow and there is also resistance against the body of the pipe which has greater increases in the serial version and is due to the greater surface area in contact with the water.

Water- Series Parallel
EMF of Batteries in Series and Parallel

Battery Circuits
Circuit 1 – Batteries in Series

The current Ig through the resistance R3 in circuit 1

If

V = I x R
and
I = V / R

Then

V = EMF1 + EMF2 = I x R

When you have resistors in series you add the values together:

Thus

EMF1 + EMF2 = Ig x (R1 + R2 + R3)

Then

Ig = (EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3)

Example1:

If

R1 = 270 ohms
R2 = 230 ohms
R3 = 940 ohms
EMF1 = 12 volts
EMF2 = 3 volts

Therefore

Ig = (12 + 3) / (270+230+940) = 15 / 1440 = 0.0104166 Amps

Example2:

If

R1 = 2.7 ohms
R2 = 2.3 ohms
R3 = 9.4 ohms
EMF1 = 12 volts
EMF2 = 4 volts

Therefore

Ig = (12 + 4) / (2.7+2.3+7.5) = 16 / 12.5 = 1.28 Amps

Circuit 1b – Batteries in Parallel , End Load

Using Kirchoff’s Loop Rule

Where all possible loops that are valid can circulate
Loop 1 = b -> a -> x < -c <- d (This Loop is incomplete)

This is an unusual combination, even though EMF11 will become in equilibrium with EMF12, the actual load is a bridge conductor. This mean this load will in fact function but of a very small current differential.

Example 1a:

If

R11 = 3 ohm
R12 = 3 ohm
R13 = 8 ohm
EMF11 = 12 volts
EMF12 = 11.75 volts

Ih = R11 / EMF11
= 3 / 12
= 0.25

Ij = R12 / EMF12
= 3 / 11.75
= 0.255319

Thus the current in the load is

Iload = Ij – Ih
= 0.05319

by deduction we can also say

R13 = EMF13 / Iload

rearranging

EMF13 = R 13 x Iload
= 8 x 0.05319
= 0.04255 volts

This easily shows Kirchoff ‘s loop rule must also include the loops that arrive from two sources that are not the same, allowing a current to flow due to the nature of unequal equipotentials. This means we must first show the currents of each half loop then by subtraction leaving the differential, which should also be divided by 2 because the current will share the remainder with both current sources.

This also means that an additional Law must be applied to resolve this type of differential loop.

The Third Law – Only implies the incomplete differential loops.

Ij – Ih – ( EMF13/R13 ) = 0                Eq0

Circuit 2 – Batteries in Parallel

Using Kirchoff’s Loop Rule

Where all possible loops that are valid can circulate

Loop 1 = a -> d -> e -> f then back to a (This Loop is invalid)
Loop 2 = a -> b -> c -> d then back to a
Loop 3 = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f then back to a

The First Law

Ic – Ib – Ia = 0                                  Eq1

The Second Law

This implies to Loop2

EMF4 – ( R6 x Ic) – (R5 x Ib) = 0        Eq2

This implies to Loop3

EMF3 – ( R4 x Ia) – (R6 x Ic) = 0         Eq3

and rearranging Eq2

EMF4 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R5 x Ib) = EMF5
EMF4 – ( R5 x Ib) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF6
EMF4 = (R5 x Ib) + (R6 x Ic)

and rearranging Eq3

EMF3 – ( R4 x Ia) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF7
EMF3 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R4 x Ia) = EMF8
EMF3 = ( R4 x Ia) + (R6 x Ic)

Also rearranging Eq1

Ic = Ia + Ib

There are 2 current branches

if

Ia = EMF3 – EMF6 / R4

and

Ib = EMF4 – EMF6 / R4

Thus

Ic = (EMF3 – EMF6 / R4) + (EMF4 – EMF6) / R5)

To conclude

if

R5 = R4

then

EMF3 = EMF4

Then

Ic = (2 x EMF3 – 2 x EMF6) / R4

Then

Ic * R4 = 2 x EMF3 – 2 x EMF6
R4 = (2 x EMF3 – 2 x EMF6) / Ic

then

R4 = ((2 x EMF3)/ Ic) – (2 x R6)
(2 x EMF3)/Ic = R4 + 2 x R6
2 x EMF3 = Ic x (R4 + 2 x R6)
Ic = 2 x EMF3 / (R4 + 2 x R6)

and

Ic = 2 x EMF3 / (R4 + 2 x R6)

Also for the invalid loop1 we must use Eq1 to see what differential circulates between these 2 EMF’s, you will have to include another load R45 between R4 and R5 at e and d.

If using the 3rd law

Ia – Ib – ( EMF34/R45 ) = 0               Eq0

then

Iload = Ia – Ib

and

EMF34 = R45 x Iload

This can now be treated as an additional EMF depending on the direction of current, eg if Ia>Ib or Ib>Ia.

Example3:

EMF3 = 12 V
EMF4 = 9 V
R4 = 100 ohms
R5 = 50 ohms
R6 = 2500 ohms
Ia = 0.0213579 amps
Ib = – 0.0173684 amps
Ic = Ia + Ib = 0.0394737 amps             Eq1
EMF4 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R5 x Ib) = EMF5
9 – (2500 x Ic) = 50 x Ib

rearrange then
Ib = (9 – (2500 x Ic)) / 50

Also if
EMF4 = (R5 x Ib) + (R6 x Ic)
= (50 x Ib) + (2500 x Ic)
= 9 volts

EMF4 – ( R5 x Ib) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF6
9 – (50 x Ib) = 2500 x Ic

Rearrange then
Ic = (9 – (50 x Ib)) / 2500
then by Eq1
Ia + Ib = (9 – (50 x Ib)) / 2500
Rearrange then
Ia = (9 – (50 x Ib)) / 2500) – Ib

and rearranging Eq3

EMF3 – ( R4 x Ia) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF7
12 – (100 x Ia) = 2500 x Ic

Rearrange then
Ic = (12 – (100 x Ia)) / 2500
then by Eq1
Ia + Ib = (12 – (100 x Ia)) / 2500
Rearrange then
Ib = (12 – (100 x Ia)) / 2500) – Ia

EMF3 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R4 x Ia) = EMF8
12 – (2500 x Ic) = 100 x Ia

Rearrange then

Ia = (12 – (2500 x Ic)) / 100
then by Eq1
Ic – Ib = (12 – (2500 x Ic)) / 100
Rearrange then
Ib = -1 x ((12 – (2500 x Ic)) / 100) – Ic)

Also if
EMF3 = ( R4 x Ia) + (R6 x Ic)
= (100 x Ia) +(2500 x Ic)
= 12 volts

The power dissipated by R3 for circuit 1

Example4:
if

EMF1 = 12 V
EMF2 = 12 V
R1 = 100 ohms
R2 = 50 ohms
R3 = 2500 ohms

and if Power is Pa

Pa = I^2 x R

and I is

Ia = (EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3)
= 0.0090566

So

Pa = [(EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3)]^2 x R3

The power dissipated of R3 using values
Solution:

Pa = [(EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3]^2 x R2
= [( 12 + 12 ) / (100 + 50 + 2500)]^2 * 2500
= [24 / 2650]^2 * 2500
= 0.205
Example5:

If

EMF1 = 12 V
EMF2 = 12 V
R1 = 100 ohms
R2 = 100 ohms
R3 = 200 ohms
R4 = 200 ohms
R5 = 200 ohms
R6 = 200 ohms

For what ratio of R1 and R2 would power dissipated by the resistor of resistance R2 be the same for circuit A and circuit B?

As long as the voltage and current are the same, the power will be the same if the resistors are equal. So the answer is, so long as:

If

EMF1 = EMF2 = EMF3 = EMF4

and

(R1 + R2) / R3 = 1                                                       Eq4
[(R4 x R5)/( R4 + R5)]/ R6 = 1                                      Eq5

Circuit 3 – Batteries in Series and Parallel

Using Kirchoff’s Loop Rule

Where all possible loops that are valid and can circulate

Loop 1 = a -> d -> e -> f then back to a
Loop 2 = a -> b -> c -> d then back to a
Loop 3 = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f then back to a

The First Law

Id – Ie – If = 0                                                         Eq6 4

The Second Law

This implies to Loop1

EMF9 – EMF10 – ( R8 x Ie) – (R7 x Id) = 0                 Eq7 5

This implies to Loop2

EMF10 – ( R9 x If) – (R8 x Ie) = 0                              Eq8 6

This implies to Loop3

EMF9 – ( R9 x If) – (R7 x Id) = 0                                Eq9 7

DemocracyBatt3a
When 2 batteries are put in parallel they will try to equalize the total charge that is available, thus a 11v connected to a 13v theoretically should equalize to 12v. This is the technology of of Ron Brant and others, where battery switching technology is not a mysterious or esoteric topic in engineering as it may seem, but due its uncommon applications it has developed in to a wild “free energy from the vacuum” cult following. This has happened over a 30 year period, saying this, it is still an interesting and unexplored territory and should be given some credence to evaluate possible parametric additions to the flow rate between these cells. This is where Kirchoffs invalid current loops become valid which now can be translated to include another branch that can be added from an outside environmental circuit, regardless if the basic layout are completely valid, thus giving a perfectly reasonable validation for external energy coupling. The anomalous readings that the researchers sometimes encounters when making experimental circuits can easily be included as differential current movements, this sometimes happens in some simple circuits when the environment has EMF leakage currents that circulate from power systems, through bad earths or inductive couplings when metal components contain eddy currents.
So when Tesla made his simple and accurate discovery that “all energy is received from the external environment”, it becomes validated once again. Thanks for reading regards Arto.

Quadrifilar Coil

November 17, 2014

As I am editing my second edition of volume one and the second volume, I am finding small errors that need to be corrected. The picture on my blog Multifilar can easily be replaced, but my book has been in print for a year, so I am including the file replacement and an additional file that will be in my second volume. The second picture has a very important visual aid for those who are designing transformers or resonant circuits, it has the layout so you can see the mutual inductance of each winding, a very simple but effective aid.

Here is the replacement file:

Quadri Filar Coil options V#2Here is the additional file:

Quadrifilar Mutual Coils

 

Tesla Newspaper Articles V

April 30, 2014

Here is a another Tesla articles I came across by accident, thanks to the Library of Congress, regards Arto.

TeslaArt-Salt

THE SALT LAKE HERALD SUNDAY JUNE 27 1897
STRANGEST MAN IN NEW YORK
Nikola Tesla and His Perpetual Motion Machine

New York June 25 -The strangest man in this city is unquestionably Nikola Tesla. Within the past fortnight he has astounded scientists the world over by his announcement that he had perfected his wireless telegraphy – in other words that he had sent and received communications between distant points without the use of wires and simply employing the natural energy the earth. Nature, he says, teems with power and motion.

Tesla is a young man. He has just past his fortieth birthday. If he lives 20 years or more and retains his faculties the world will be a different place to live in compared with today. His ideas and projects are so big that it takes time to grasp their real import. He talks as calmly of producing a flash of lightning a mile long as the ordinary man speaks of telegraphing to Chicago. Not long ago in his laboratory he said: ”I expect to live to be able to set a machine in the middle of this room and move it by the energy of no other agency than the medium in motion around us.”

This sounds like the vaporings of a dreamer. It means a perpetual motion machine, and that, in itself, is enough to stamp Tesla, in the minds of ordinary men as a full-fledged visionary.

But Tesla is the very acme of practicality in all things except money making. If he wished he could be a millionaire five times over. As it is, there are dozens of ordinary mechanics within a mile of his laboratory who could buy and sell him six times over. “If every man.” said Tesla, “who uses my machine in electro-terafy alone would give me a quarter of a dollar, I would be very wealthy. I have never received a dollar for it, and there is no way in which I could.

Tesla is I strange in all things. He will talk willingly about electrical inventions of the past, present and future, but it is like drawing teeth to him to say a word about himself. He has a genuine distaste for notoriety when Tesla, the man, is concerned, and politely asks to be let alone.

He ts a Montenegran by birth. His father was a man of unusual mental attainments, and his mother had the inventive genius to a considerable degree. “I am not much of a linguist,” says Tesla. “I speak but six or seven or eight languages. My father spoke 18, and, besides, he was a remarkable mathematician.”

Tesla is tall, thin and lanky, but quick and impulsive in manner and earnest in speech. He is not much of a talker, but every word he utters means something. His head is big and bony and his ears stick out. He is not a handsome man, by any means, but he is impressive. His hair is as black as hair can be, and is coarse and rumpled.

Physically he does not appear to he robust, but he says his constitution is rugged and he can stand almost any strain. In his youth he was a famous wrestler. He went in for all kinds of sport. The Montenegrans are rare gamblers, and Tesla inherited the national love of excitement over the card table. More than once in those days he went through single sittings of 48 hours at a stretch, and then only stopped because the other players had succumbed.

“I know the fascination of play,” he said, “but all the allurements of the game are insipid to me compared with the overmastering excitement of life in the laboratory. No thrill can go through the human frame like that felt by the Inventor as he sees the creation of his brain unfolding to success after months and years of waiting and hoping.” So Tesla does not gamble now, at least, not over the card table. His laboratory supplies all the excitement that his emotion can stand.

Tesla’s father was a clergyman of the Greek church, and it was intended that the son should fit himself for the same life. The idea of entering the ministry was opposed by the boy with such pertinacity that at last his father compromised by agreeing that he should become a professor or mathematics and physics. With that end in view Tesla was sent to the Polytechnic institute at Gratz, and there, in operation, was a gramme dynamo. That simple electrical instrument, the first that he had seen, settled the future calling of Tesla.

Prior to entering the Polytechnic at Gratz he had first attended a public school at Gospich, and later spent three years at the high school in Carstatt, Croatia. It was while he was here that he saw his first steam engine.

Immediately on entering the Polytechnic he began experimenting with electricity, and when his father heard of it there was a stiff family row, but the son came off victor, and instead of taking the course that would have fitted him for a college professorship of mathematics, he studied engineering. The gramme dynamo became his great pet, and while working about it he got the notion that it could be operated without commutator or brushes. This idea he labored over and experimented upon and finally after many years, it resulted in one of his greatest inventions, a rotating field motor.

The world owes a debt of gratitude to the little gramme dynamo, as it instigated the fundamental idea which subsequent elaborations and perfections by Tesla made possible several of the grandest mechanical feats that the world has ever known. When Tesla first came to this country, little I was known of the alternating current, and electrical energy was delivered almost entirely by the continuous current system. This is a successful method for short line work, but where the power is to be transmitted to a considerable distance it is impracticable.

One of Tesla’s inventions, based upon his first idea, was an alternating current motor that permitted the transmission of energy long distances at high pressure over the wires. This invention made possible the bridling of the power in Niagara, and natural forces by its use can be harnessed everywhere. Originally it was thought necessary to employ two wires for the transmission of power – one to convey it and the other to return it. Tesla proved that the second wire was a needless expense and that the energy could be transmitted with one wire with smaller waste than with two.

The bulk of Tesla’s income is derived from his invention in the rotating field, and it is not a large income either. He also receives a small sum from his fathers estate, and these are the sum total of his pecuniary resources. Nine-tenths of this money goes into his laboratory work. He spends next to nothing on himself. He is unmarried. He says an inventor has no business marrying, as the necessary home life would surely interfere with the prosecution of his labors.

From 12 to 18 hours a day he spends in his laboratory. He has no social life. He attended a reception once, was lionized by his hostess and the guests and spent the most unhappy hour of his life. Since then he has avoided social functions with assiduous care.

After leaving the school at Gratz Tesla went to Paris, but he attracted little attention, because his Ideas were then in their infancy and were of such magnificent calibre that the mere mention of them made the leading French electricians regard their originator as a fanciful dreamer. Some friend advised him to come to America. This he did, and, hunting up Thomas A. Edison soon convinced that genius that he was a valuable man to employ.

Tesla’s stay with Edison was brief. He had his own ideas, and, it is believed, they clashed with Edison’s. Tesla has never said much about this. Right here it should be mentioned that the Montenegrans has not the jealousy common among inventors. He never belittles the work of any man, and he has done more for young electricians Just starting out than any other dozen men of his profession.
GRANTLAND GRIEVE.

TeslaPicSaltsqNIKOLA TESLA, WHOSE ELECTRICAL CONTRIVANCES MAY MAKE A PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE A REALITY

Tesla Coil Conversations

April 4, 2014

Tesla Coil Conversations

by Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2014

Memories of Tesla and 1000 other coils

Arto and Fred standing in front of a Large Cylindrical Tesla Coil, in the workshop and home laboratory of Arto Heino:

Arto: “Stick your hand in at the base of that big Tesla coil and tell me if the voltage is big”, he said while grinning wryly.
Fred: “No way man, I can see the high voltage at the top, which means I might die, because it is the current that kills”, jumps back while he exclaims, being puzzled by his own instinctive understanding.
Arto: “Well said, how did you figure that out?”
Fred: “Just hanging around you, by watching how you avoid touching the primary and any part down at the base of the coil”

He looks around the workshop and sees lots of different balls sizes and some toroids, he can see that they attach to the top of the Tesla coil.

Fred: “Why have you got that ball on top?”
Arto: “To store the reactive charge into the dielectric around the ball while the dielectric component is reflected at the anti-node and will be transformed back to the magnetic component at the base which is reflected by the node, all this happens during each cycle at its natural frequency and is the due to it’s standing wave resonant structure, which relates to the length of the wire being the quarter of the wave length of its natural frequency, while also adhering to the balance of two components the inductive which is the magnetic component and the capacitive which is the dielectric component at the same frequency,”
Arto: “To simplify they act as polar opposites both have reflections at the opposite node, Magnetic/Node, Dielectric/Anti-node, so simple no complicated explanation necessary. This sort of knowledge makes theoretical and mathematical people nervous.”
Fred: “Wow that changes a my way of thinking, they never told me that at school”
Arto: “I understand, sometimes understanding something is not easy, you have to be able to fail and disappoint yourself to get past those prejudices”

Now they are standing in front of a bench with lots of coils, capacitors and power supplies:

Fred: “What’s with that other coil, there is no sparks or ball?”
Arto: “Oh that is a half-wave system, that doesn’t use a reactive transformation like the Tesla Coil. It just swaps between the Voltage/Current transform, but in a nodal resonant fashion, by the length of the wire being half the length of the wave length of its natural frequency.”

Fred points to another fancy coil on the bench:

Fred: “That one their has a ball at either end, and a thick primary in the center.”
Arto: “That is another half wave system, but this one also has capacitive reactive exchanges at either end, it acts like two Tesla coils joined at the base.”

Fred walks over and flicks the switch that is labelled “LC circuit”.

Fred: “Then what’s this other one here, it has a Capacitor and Coil, but it sparks are small”
Arto: “That is similar to the Big Tesla Coil, but it only resonates between the reactive components not the nodal structure, the wire length only relates to the amount of turns and an increase in inductance”
Fred: “Oh so you are saying that resonance can be number of exchange devices”

Fred picks up a long cylindrical neon tube and walks over to the Tesla coil:

Fred: “Check out that Neon light when you bring it to the top of the coil”
Arto: “Yes, that is the high charge density around the top capacitance, it affects the neon inside the tube and makes it fluoresce, that’s why they call it a florescent tube”
Fred: “The light is not bright down here”
Arto: “That is because the alternating magnetic component does not affect the neon in the tube, and the dielectric charge density is low just like the voltage but having said that the current density is high”

Now they are standing in front of a industrial neon light fitting, using a multimeter:

Fred: “How come when I measure the small neon transformer here it only shows 120 volts”
Arto: “That’s the voltage just to maintain the florescent activity in the tube, the ignition circuit starts the florescence and is part of the same transformer, it just creates a inductive high voltage charge when the starter switches”

“It is not hard to teach people to look but its takes a lifetime to educate those to see.” – Arto Heino

This could be one  my last post on WordPress, due to slow sales of my book and lack of support for my work, I will be moving my previous posts and they will be only available as PDFs, sorry I given a lot of my work for free and do not know if I can continue with this blog, good luck to all the experimenters and researchers. Regards Arto.

Tesla’s Art of Individualization

March 22, 2014

Here is a link to my PDF file for my first draft of Tesla’s  Art of Individualization. Please consider a small donation so I can keep writing these types of articles, Regards Arto.

TeslaRecAndGate2aP1bArt-o-fIndavidual1

Donate via PayPal

 

 

Resonant LC Parameter Chart

March 20, 2014

Having worked on many types of resonant systems over the years(electrical, mechanical, acoustic), this chart is very useful to get a intuitive grasp on the some of the parameters and values needed for a basic LC (inductor, capacitor) electrical resonant system. It covers 100 Mhz to 1 Khz, I hope you find it useful, regards Arto.

I hope you consider, purchasing a copy of my book, so I can continue to create content like the one above, Regards Arto

Here is the press release and interview with Adam Bull.  https://artojh.wordpress.com/2013/12/14/live-interview/

Tesla Newspaper Articles IV

March 20, 2014

Here is the second part of the two part interview from the year 1905, again it is from Australia. Thanks to the National Archives in Canberra, regards Arto.

Tesla-Art1905-2b

The Daily News (Perth, WA) Monday 3 April 1905

NIKOLA TESLA.

(By Frank G. Carpenter in the Los Angeles “Illustrated Weekly Magazine.”)

II.

TESLA’S NEW INVENTIONS.

And , now to Mr. Tesla’s latest discoveries. If he has what he thinks he has he will revolutionise labor and give man greater benefits than have come from any inventor since the world began. Indeed, the statements made me tonight in the mouth of any other man would be a fair test of in sanity. But many of Tesla’s wild statements of the past have been verified by great working inventions. He said he could harness Niagara, and through his experiments in tho rotary magnetic fields Niagara is now furnishing a power equal to that of tens of thousands 0f horses, and electrical works are being run by the same principle all over the globe. The New York subway, for instance, is founded upon it, Tesla demonstrated that wireless telegraphy could be done in 1893, and it is a question whether his inventions in that field are not prior in those of Marconi or De Forrest.

Tonight he told me that he had almost completed inventions by which he could send electrical power lo any distance, without wires, and that in any quantity, small or great. Said he :—

“I have proved that power can be thus transmitted. Let us suppose I have my plant at Niagara and you are running a sugar factory in Australia ; by my discoveries ii will be possible to send you 100, 500, or 1,000 horsepower for your factory, and to supply the same regularly, by the force furnished from Niagara Falls. Suppose you are travelling in the wilds of the Andes and make your camp on the shores of Lake Titicaca. By the outcome of this principle you may have telegraphed to you the instantaneous reports of the news of tho world as it happens from time to time. You may cook your dinner over an electric fire thus transmitted, and you may have the same at will on any part cf the globe. We shall be able to send power from place to place at will, and that at such a small cost that it will be industrially profitable.”

THE TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY WITHOUT WIRES.

“How did you discover that this might be done, Mr. Tesla ?” I asked.

“I have been for years working on the transmission of electrical energy, and, in 1898 established a laboratory on the edge of the Rocky Mountains, near Colorado Springs, My laboratory, there was over 6,000ft, high, higher than the top of Mount Washington, and I had extraordinary conditions for my experiments. Colorado is famous for its natural displays of electrical force. The earth at times is alive with electrical vibrations, and the air is full of electricity. I have seen 12,000 lightning discharges with in two hours, and all within a radius of 30 miles of my laboratory. These discharges were of great violence, some of them looking like trees of fire on the heavens. It was among such discharges that I had my electrical instruments, and studied the principles of electricity transmission through the earth and air. One day while watching the lightning I noticed that the discharges afar off often affected the instruments in my laboratory more than those near by. Upon examination I found that this could not be caused by the difference of intensity in the individual charges.”

“What could it be ?”

“Through instruments made for the purpose I tested the matter from time to time and finally came to the conclusion that the vibrations caused by the lightning moved around the world, and that there were stationary waves, I could gauge the discharges near the laboratory and see them fade away, and, after a certain fixed period, find   them returning almost with no loss of power. In short, this planet, big as it is, was acting as a conductor, and I became convinced that upon it not only telegraphic messages, but also the modulations of the human voice and electrical power in unlimited amounts, could’ be carried around the entire globe, and sent to any part of it with hardly any perceptible loss. With my transmitter I actually sent electrical vibrations around the world and resolved them again, and I then went on to develop my machinery. I had, as I have told you, been studying and inventing along the lines electrical   transmission, and was ready to take advantage of my discovery. I have   since so improved the means of individualisation and isolation that such energy may be sent in any amount to any fixed place without danger of its going elsewhere or affecting others,   and I believe the individualisation can be carried out to almost any degree.”

NIAGARA FOR THE WORLD.

“Will this enable the power of Niagara to be sent anywhere over the world ?”

“Yes, I have been experimenting at my laboratory on Long Island. I have machinery and buildings there which have cost in the neighborhood of £70,000, and the results show me that a plant could be erected at Niagara which can transmit its force to any place, desired. I am designing such a plant now at my laboratory, and would have had it completed had it not been for unforeseen delays, which have nothing to do with its technical features. The design which I have adopted will have a transmitter which will emit a wave complex of a total maximum activity of 10,000,000 horse- power, one per cent, of which is enough to girdle the globe. This enormous rate of energy delivery – it is twice, as much as the force of Niagara Falls – is obtainable only by the use of certain artifices which I shall make known some time in the future.

“We have been offered 10,000 horse- power from the Canadian Power Company. What I want to do is to build machinery there and transmit this power to various parts of the globe. The value of that amount of horsepower would be about £40,000 per year, and a plant erected to take advantage of it will pay large dividends.”

“How much would the plant cost?”

“It might cost in the neighborhood of £400,000, but its value would be enormous, and its success would revolutionise the working forces of the globe. It would result in other plants being erected at other places, and in the utilisation of all the great waterfalls for the work of man.”

MOTHER EARTH PUT TO WORK.

“By this invention every live part of mother earth’s body would he brought into action. Energy will be collected all over the globe in amounts small or large, as it may exist, ranging from a fraction of one to a few horsepower or more. Every waterfall can be utilised, every coalfield made to produce energy to be transmitted to vast distances, and every place on earth can have power at small cost. One of the minor uses might be the illumination of isolated homes. We could light houses all over the country, by means of vacuum tubes operated by high frequency currents. We could keep the clocks of the United States going and give everyone exact time; we could turn factories, machine shops and mills, small or large, anywhere, and I believe could also navigate the air.

THE TRANSMISSION OF INTELLIGENCE.

“One of the most important features of this invention,’ said Mr. Tesla, “‘will be the transmission of intelligence. It will convert the entire earth into a huge brain, capable of responding in every one of its parts. By the employment of a number of plants, each of which can transmit signals to all parts of the world, the news of the globe will be flashed to all points. A cheap and simple receiving device, which might be carried in one’s pocket, can be set up anywhere on sea or land, and it will record the world’s news as it occurs, or take such special messages as are intended for it. If you are in the heart of the Sahara, your wife can telegraph to you from Washington, and if the instrument is properly made you alone will get the message. A single plant of a few horsepower could operate hundreds of such instruments, so that the invention has an infinite working capacity, and will cheapen the transmission of all kinds of intelligence.”

Tesla Newspaper Articles III

March 20, 2014

Here is another Tesla article, this is the first part of a two part interview from the year 1905, I will post the second part in the next blog entry, again it is from Australia. Thanks to the National Archives in Canberra, regards Arto.

Tesla-Art1905-2a

The Daily News (Perth, WA) Saturday 1 April 1905

NIKOLA TESLA.

(By, Frank G. Carpenter in the Los Angeles “Illustrated Weekly, Magazine.”)

I give you to-day the substance of two remarkable talks with Nikola Tesla. The first I had in his laboratory on East Houston Street, nine years ago last September. The second was held in the Waldorf tonight.

The first interview was most interesting, giving a wonderful insight into Tesla the inventor and Tesla the man, but it was never published, for Mr. Tesla, at its close, on the ground of business reasons, begged that I say nothing about him for months to come. I wrote out the notes, however, and laid them away, and when I met Mr. Tesla tonight I told him I now intended to use them. At the same time we had the most extraordinary conversation about his recent discoveries and inventions as to the transmission of force, which I reproduce in the latter part of this article.

TESLA THE MAN.

First take a glance at Tesla the man. He looked more like an Italian savant than a hard working inventor when I saw him in the Waldorf tonight. He was in evening dress, and was the most striking figure of the score of public men who stood about the lobby. Mr. Tesla is now 47 years of age, and is in his physical and intellectual prime. He is tall and slender, his head is long, thin and intellectual, with a forehead high and full. He was born in Hungary and educated there, but he speaks English perfectly, and is one of the most charming conversationalists I have ever met. During my chat of some years ago he talked of his boyhood. His father was a clergyman of the Greek Church, and Nikola was intended for the priesthood. He had a brother older than himself, whom the rest of the family, considered much brighter. That brother died young, and this so crazed his father and mother that it took them long to realise the genius of Nikola. If he stood well in his studies his father’s eyes would fill as he thought how much better, perhaps, the other son might have done, and whatever Nikola did was always compared with the possible work of the boy who had passed away. His first education was in the public schools of Gospich, and after that he went to the Real Schule at Karlstadt. As he went on with his studies he liked mathematics so much that he intended to fit himself to be a professor of mathematics and physics, and with that view studied at the Polytechnic School at Gratz. He changed to the engineering course, and later on stud- ied philosophy and languages in the colleges at Prague and Budapest. He has since been made a doctor of laws by Yale and Columbia. Shortly after completing his studies Mr. Tesla was associated with the Government of Austria-Hungary in the telegraph engineering department, where he invented several improvements. From there he went to Paris, to be engineer of a large lighting company, and thence to the United States, where he was employed by Thomas Edison in his laboratory. His next position was that of electrician to the Tesla Electric Light Company, and at the same time he established the Tesla laboratory, from which his great inventions have come.

TESLA THE INVENTOR.

During my chat with Mr. Tesla I asked him when he first realised that he had the inventive faculty, and he told me he had always been inventing something or other. When he was quite a small boy he made toy guns, which would shoot birds, and as he was the only one who could make them he supplied the boys of his neighborhood. He made clocks at eight or nine years of age, and began to dabble in electricity before he was in his teens. His first determination to devote his life to invention came shortly after he went to London to deliver a lecture before a scientific society there. At this lecture he met Lord Rayleigh, the great physicist, and showed him some of his experiments. Rayleigh said that he had undoubtedly the faculty of discovery and that he would succeed as an inventor. “Shortly after this my mother died,” said Mr. Tesla, “and I concluded to exert this power. Lord Rayleigh had said I possessed it, and, upon examining myself, I believed him correct. I did not want to waste my powers on small things, and I decided to strive towards something that would benefit humanity. I am working on an invention for the transmission of force. This invention will, I believe, revolutionise the world of labor. I am also working on electricity, and I cannot remember when I was not working more or less in the direction of a successful flying machine. My idea as to that is along different lines than any yet proposed, and I expect to see it realised. Indeed, we shall eventually have flying machines that will be large enough to carry crowds through the air. They must be large in order to succeed”. These words were uttered by Mr.Tesla nine years ago. Today he says he has completed his force transmission invention, as will be seen, by my Waldorf conversation, which follows. He has also done other things which he proposed in that interview. Remember, it was before the time of the wireless telegraph, but he then said to me the following:—   “I tell, you, we are on the threshold of a new era. We have only begun to master the great forces of Nature, and the inventions of the next few decades will be far superior to any of the past. What would you think of standing on the shore and telephoning to your friend in midocean? What of being in the centre of a room and making your whole body blaze with light? What of sending power to and fro over tho earth at will and making it do its work anywhere, and almost anyhow?

HOW IT FEELS TO INVENT.

Mr. Tesla told me that his greatest pleasure was in his work, and that he could conceive no moment so exciting and rapturous as that connected with the discovery of a new principle which, when put into use, would revolutionise the work of the world. Take, for instance, the invention which brought forth the apparatus used in the transmission of power at Niagara Falls. Said he, as he took me to a great coil of wire wound round a stationary magnet, which was connected with the dynamo, and held above it a little globe in which was a steel wheel moving on a pivot: “I had been working on that experiment for a long time, and this was the test. I know that if I were correct the wheel in this globe, would revolve as soon as I turned on the electricity. It did revolve, and I know. I had discovered  what would revolutionise the labor of tho world. You can run all sorts of power by that principle. You can take power from Niagara and bring it to New York. The cars can be pulled by it, factories run, houses heated and dinners cooked. I cannot describe my sensation when I saw the wheel revolve. I thought I should go crazy, and I went home, to my laboratory and took some bromide of potassium to quiet me. “It has been the same in some of my experiments with electric lights and other things. No 1 the greatest rapture one can have is to discover a new force or series of forces which will reduce man’s working necessities to the minimum. I do not believe in laziness, and I should like to see the loafer wiped from the face of the earth, but I want that those who are willing, to work should accomplish their results with the least labor and in the best way,”

HOW TESLA WORKS.

As to Mr. Tesla himself, there is no harder worker known. He told me that he seldom slept more than four hours of a night, and during some periods not more than three. When in the thick of a new invention it was hard to sleep. His work in always with him, and he says that his mind sometimes works in his sleep. He awakes in the morning to find that the problem which had worried him when he went to bed has been practically solved overnight. He has always been a light sleeper. His mother died at 70 and she never took more than four hours sleep. His father also was a light sleeper. Tesla is a peculiar worker. Failures do not trouble him.  After he undertakes a thing and decides that it should come out a certain way, he keeps on experimenting and experimenting, believing in his success. He says that if he doubted his ability it would make him crazy. He seems to have a dual mind. He told me that he often found himself carrying on two trains of thought at the same time, and said that while he was talking to me he could see the figures of some of his calculations behind me and could carry them on at the same time. He is always figuring. His scrap basket is filled with the calculations which he has torn up and thrown away. He keeps a record of his experiments, and when his laboratory was burned some years ago he lost the work of years in ideas and suggestions which had thus been recorded. (To be continued on Monday)

Tesla Newspaper Articles II

March 17, 2014

Here is another set of Tesla articles, from the years 1901 to 1907, again it is from Australia. Thanks to the National Archives in Canberra, regards Arto.

Tesla-Art1901-1

The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, (Parramatta, NSW) Wednesday 27, February 1901

TESLA LIGHT.      MARS.

The system by which Mr. Nikola Tesla hopes to be able to signal Mars. Mr. Tesla recently said to an interviewer : — ” It seems to me that only men absolutely stricken with blindness can hold that the earth is the sole planet inhabited by intelligent beings. I have perfected my transmitting apparatus to the extent that I can understand to construct a machine which, without a doubt will be fully competent to convey sufficient energy to Mars to operate delicate appliances such as are used here. Since we ourselves are so far advanced, is it unreasonable to believe in the possibility that of the 20 or 25 planets of the solar system, one, if  not more, may be ahead of us in evolution ? The time has arrived for the electrician to join the astronomer in the explanation of neighbouring worlds.

Fourth planet from sun (140 millions of miles distant). Diameter — little more than half the earth’s Atmosphere like ours. The black signifies water; the white, land. Note the wonderful canal system, proving that the Martians are highly civilised.

Tesla-Art1901-2

Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald & General Advertiser Thursday 18 July 1901

TESLA’S ACHIEVEMENTS.

In a recent interview, Mr. Tesla gives the following description of some of his recent achievements :-“With a small engine, capable of pressing a piston backward and forward with a force of but two pounds, I have set an entire block of modern buildings, by careful attunement, into such a swaying that the people rushed out affrighted. With an impressed force of a fraction of a pound I caused steel rings of several square inches cross-section, capable of supporting several   hundred tons, to vibrate and form loops like thin piano wires, until they finally broke.”

Tesla-Art1905-1

The World’s News (Sydney, NSW) Saturday, 24 June, 1905

Tesla Patents.

“A” broad field has apparently opened to tho electrical world   with the expiration, of the three patents granted Nikola Tesla in 1888, covering fundamentally the rotary field type of electric motor. But the actual situation developed by the expiration of these patents is slightly obscured by the patent granted Tesla on the split phase motor in 1890, which still remains in force. The electro-magnetic rotating field was discovered by Professor Galileo Ferraris, of Italy, and on a broad application of the rotating field to alternating current motors the first Tesla patents were issued.   Courts have held broadly, in a number of decisions in litigation concerning these three patents, that they cover the system of producing power from an electric motor by means of the rotary field. Hence it seems reasonable to assume the principle of the rotary field is released to the world of invention by their expiration, in audition, in so far as the split phase patents are concerned, the   invention of this principle by Tesla was denied   by two Courts, one of these decisions being sustained on appeal, and the other reversed. But it remains to be decided by those interested to what extent the line of subsidiary patents issued during the life of the fundamental patents   may narrow the field opened by the termination of the latter.

Tesla-Art1907-1

The Daily News (Perth, WA) Saturday 19 October 1907

NIKOLA TESLA.
Nikola Tesla, the American scientist, says coal is a “back number,” and that we shall soon be driving machinery, running railway trains, sailing steamships, cooking food, and lighting streets and houses by power obtained direct from the sun.