Posts Tagged ‘electrical’

Wireless Power 1917

November 11, 2015

This article is from Popular Science Monthly, what a great read, and a very concise look at what the current developments were at the time, be it the theories or practical applications this article will be most interesting.

Popular Science

Popular Science Monthly
JULY 1917

Wireless Power——The Next Great Invention

Electrical Experts, in Amazing Experiments, Reveal How Radio Beams Soon May Light and Heat Our Homes


In a New York lecture hall a few nights ago. a group of engineers watched a scientist raise in his hand an electric light bulb. To it was attached a four-foot copper rod. A short distance away a radio vacuum tube was turned on—-and instantly the bulb glowed brilliantly!

This was “radio power,” dream of scientists. On a laboratory scale, Dr. Phillips Thomas, research engineer of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, had demonstrated before the New York Electrical Society how near scientists had come to the transmission of energy without wires between cities and across country.

Tomorrow, radio beams of power may light and heat your home. Electric waves surging without wires through the earth and the ether may drive airplanes, automobiles and trains. Instead of the present uneconomical use of coal in small power plants scattered through every country, a few monster central stations may generate all of the world’s power, which may he tapped by an aerial or a grounded wire at any point on the earth’s surface. Isolated homes as well as the factories of a metropolis will share equally in the wealth of available power by wireless. Such a prophecy for the future is well within the limits of possibility, in this wonder age of science. A few months ago. no one dreamed that soon you would be able to see by radio—-yet now we have television! Will radio power be the next great invention? Many scientists are at work on it today—and at any moment it may he realized on a practical scale. The idea of transmitting power with out wires is not new. Heinrich Hertz, discoverer of radio waves. tested its possibility and found it feasible. Nikola Tesla, celebrated inventor. Who devised a system of wired power to transmit alternating electric currents, now in use throughout the world, has experimented in the field for years. Even now he is designing an amazing wireless power plant to he erected at Niagara Falls. Dr. Charles Steinmetz. one of the greatest electricians the world has known, was a firm believer in future wireless  power and suggested a method by which it might be achieved. Senator Marconi, father of radio communication adds his expert opinion that power by radio is near.

Only recently Marconi told the Institution of Civil Engineers in London that the transmission of power by electrical waves awaited only the perfection of devices for projecting the waves in parallel beams in such a manner as to minimize dispersion and diffusion of the energy into space.

The ordinary broadcasting station projects random waves in all directions that follow outward paths like the spokes of a cartwheel. A few miles away, you could not collect power enough to run your watch. But Marconi has invented a radio reflector that concentrates the waves in one direction, bunching them all together, as between two adjacent spokes of the wheel. In his system a number of short “aerials” are arranged in a curved row at the back of the main broadcasting antenna to reflect the waves it emits in a beam with parallel or at most slightly fan-shaped edges. Between London and Canada, and elsewhere. this type of “beam radio” has produced strong signals for radio telegraphy at a distance where ordinary signals would be weak and inaudible.

A “magnifying transmitter,” that hurls electric currents at millions of volts into the earth, to be recovered as power at any point on its surface, is the invention of Nikola Tesla. “The transmission of power without wires is not a theory or a mere possibility.” this wizard of electricity told me recently. “It is a fact which I myself have demonstrated in numerous practical experiments, conducted on a large scale with a generator of 1500 kilowatts capacity. As long ago as 1899 I found that the current from my magnifying transmitter traverses the globe and returns to its origin with undiminished strength. This at forded evidence that there was virtually no loss in the transmission through the earth: and that by a properly organized apparatus at the sending and receiving stations, power in industrial amounts could be transmitted with an efficiency as high as ninety-nine and a half percent.”

To TRANSMIT power through the earth, Dr. Tesla said, he plans to erect at Niagara a huge tower similar to the one he had partially completed on Long Island N. Y., when it was destroyed at the outbreak of the European war. Contrary to popular opinion, neither that nor the improved structure he proposes is a radio tower. Like some gigantic pile driver, it will jar the earth, not the air, with artificial thunderbolts manufactured in its mushroom like dome.

In the sky, as well as the earth, may lie the secret of wireless power. A study of huge sparks, some of them 400 feet long, that Tesla has produced in his laboratory, has shown that in the rarefied upper atmosphere electricity could travel with surprising ease, though at ground level it takes thousands of volts to produce a spark a few inches long.

Other experiments have shown that the levels at which such a low of electric power could be produced are within a reasonable distance of the earth,—say 30.000 feet above sea level. This has led Hugh Pollard, a British engineer, to suggest monster towers reaching into the clouds and topped by captive balloons, to feed power at millions of volts into the vast conducting layer of the upper air. At other points on the earth’s surface, such as Mount McKinley with its 20,000 foot peak in Alaska. Mount Whitney in California, and Mont Blane in France, similar towers would withdraw the power for distribution.

At the poles. Pollard points out, this conducting layer of air is probably much nearer, perhaps only a mile high, because here the rotating force of the whirling earth is little felt. and does not pull the atmosphere away from the surface, as it does at the equator. A polar power plant might therefore feed power more easily into the aerial electric reservoir. Moreover, the exploring parties of Vilhjalmur Stefansson and of Capt. Donald MacMillan in the Far North, and of Sir Ernest Shackleton, Roald Amundsen, and Capt. Robert F. Scott in Antarctic regions have reported that vast stores of coal, and occasionally oil, exist near the poles. There would be no lack of fuel, then, to run the plants—fuel that now lies unused simply because the cost of transporting it to civilization would be too great.

HOW well the theory of a low conducting air level at the poles agrees with fact is likely soon to be known. Arctic explorers invariably return with accounts of strange displays of northern lights—a weirdly beautiful electric phenomenon still not fully understood, but known to have a definite connection with the electrified upper air. The most recent polar expeditions have collected masses of scientific data taken from auroral observations, which may confirm the existence of such a low-hanging layer. The amazing system of wireless power proposed by Dr. Steinmetz, the exact opposite of Tesla’s “earth power,” was to girdle the earth with power from the outside instead of from within. A broadcasting station, he said, might emit a wave of tremendous strength—millions of horsepower—that would circle the earth and return to its starting point. If the wave length were properly chosen, such a wave would have lost only a small part of its power by the time it completed its journey, and would continue its circuit many times. The broadcasting station would time its successive waves so accurately that the first one  returned at the exact moment that a similar one was being sent out. The only additional power required. then, to keep the waves going would be to make up the slight loss in transmission, as long as no power was being withdrawn. When some receiving station “tuned-in” to withdraw the wireless power, it would “leave a hole in the wave” that the broadcasting station would make up by supplying an additional amount. Many stations scattered over the world could feed power into the wave, each one carefully timed to emit its waves just as the main wave passed by.

“Radio power” of another sort was used by Dr. Harvey C. Rentschler, like Dr. Thomas a Westinghouse research engineer, to perform a feat that had baffled chemists for years. He demonstrated his apparatus on the same night that Dr. Thomas disclosed his method of transmitting power without wires. In a new type of “radio furnace“ that melts metals in a vacuum. Dr. Rentschler succeeded in obtaining the rare metal uranium in a solid mass for the first time. The device that accomplished this remarkable result and thereby inaugurated a new science- “radio-chemistry ”—was designed to focus a large quantity of radio power in a small space, rather than transmit it to a distance.

When Dr. Rentschler threw a switch that turned on the current, radio waves from a powerful electric coil pierced the emptiness of the vacuum to generate a terrific electric current in a small capsule of impure powder containing uranium. There was a flash, and incandescent metal swelled to a molten mass. When it cooled, Dr. Rentschler was the first man in the world to see what this extremely heavy metal looked like. Much like iron in its grayish appearance, it was far more precious than platinum.

Other rare metals of like properties yielded their secrets to Dr. Rentschler when placed in the vacuum and heated by radio waves. The new furnace is of inestimable value to chemists, who can now watch reactions they could never see before that can take place only at high temperatures, in a vacuum.

With radio power in a test tube already achieved, will the next step be radio power in your home? Very likely, Dr. Thomas told the scientists who witnessed his demonstrations of lamp-lighting by radio.

Already he can transmit power without wires over a short distance. With improved vacuum tubes and electric circuits, he said, he hoped to improve his power transmission until he produced a type of wireless wave that would yield a space-annihilating beam over which huge quantities of power might be sent.

Short radio waves, ten thousand times shorter than those used in broadcasting, are the means Dr. Thomas will use. His goal is a “beam radio”—but a beam unlike any that has ever been produced. If he can make his radio waves short enough and powerful enough—he will focus them to a narrow, four-inch ray by means of a curved metal mirror!

Then he will project his beam, like a searchlight, to its destination. Such rays would criss-cross a city, and wires would become obsolete. Each home would have its own “rod receiver,” a short copper wire, resembling the one Dr. Thomas used in his demonstration, with which you could tap the power flowing through the ether just as you now listen-in to music with your radio set.

The idea of reflecting radio waves with mirrors may seem a little startling, but your own experience will yield the evidence in its favor. The silvered reflector of your car’s headlight concentrates its rays in a parallel beam. Light waves and radio waves are closely related to each other, differing only in their length; the waves of light are much shorter. Could radio waves, like light, be focused?

In between light and radio are heat waves—of medium length. Like light waves. they too can be obtained of short wave and maximum power. The radio wave that furnished the wireless current supply was only two and four-tenths meters—about eight feet long; yet through it he was able to “broadcast” thirty watts, about a twentieth of a horsepower. He can produce a wave of half that length, though his power is also cut in half.

To try out his scheme of reflecting a beam with a metal mirror, Dr. Thomas awaits the shorter-wave, higher-power beam he hopes to obtain. In his demonstration he allowed his radio waves to scatter at random through the surrounding air, and his feat of transmitting an appreciable amount of power was therefore the more remarkable.

DR THOMAS is not the first scientist to light lamps by radio; his simplified apparatus, rather than the demonstration of wireless light, is his greatest accomplishment. Nearly four years ago, Dr. Willis R. Whitney, of the General Electric Company, demonstrated before the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Cincinnati what he then characterized as an advance “as near to the wireless transmission of power as we have yet seen.” Standing a foot away from a powerful electric coil through which alternating current was pulsing at high frequency he held up a lamp bulb like those in your home and caused it to glow by wireless power. This experiment follows the same principle as Dr. Rentschler’s radio furnace, instead of Dr. Thomas’ method of using radio waves at a distance.

More than twenty years before, Nikola Tesla first lit a lamp by radio. He used a wave of a size that required a huge receiving coil of wire attached to the lamp. The other end of the coil was grounded, and the length of the wire was so chosen as to be exactly “in tune” with the broadcasting station hundreds of feet away.

What Dr. Thomas has done is to substitute for complicated receivers an ordinary piece of straight wire, made possible by the short wave he has produced. To pick up power from any radio wave, the rod, Dr. Thomas found, must be exactly half as long as the wave itself. Collecting current from a broadcasting wave would therefore require a rod of unwieldy length. With Dr. Thomas’ eight-foot wave, it need be only four feet long—a handy little rod to keep in your home!

The way that Dr. Thomas‘ “half-wave receiver,” as he calls it, picks up power from the air might be illustrated by placing a hollow tube half an “ocean wave length” long in the breakers at the seashore, pointing out to sea. One end of the tube would lie in the crest of an incoming wave. the other in the trough of the preceding one, and water would surge through it in one direction. A moment later, the crest would have reached the other end. the first end would be in a trough, and water would rush through it the other way. In the same manner an alternating surge of current runs back and forth along the metal rod from the radio waves in the air.

This much science already knows about the mechanics of generating and handling the radio power beam. But there will be more to learn— for the ray that Dr. Thomas seeks in his East Pittsburgh, laboratory, is a dangerous subject for experiment before scientists learn to control it. No one knows what might happen if such a beam were turned loose!

It might render the air through which it passed a conductor of electricity, much as does a bolt of lightning temporarily—and turn a shaft of air into an “electric wire” along which you could send an ordinary electric current. The radio beam, then, need not itself conduct the power, but serve simply as a channel for electricity.

For instance, an isolated mining camp in the face of an inaccessible mountain might receive electric power to run the mining machinery from a beam shot through the air from the base of the mountain.

One thing, Dr. Thomas says, is certain— with half the power of a modern broadcasting station behind it, a short-wave radio ray focused in a narrow beam of concentrated power would kill anyone who stepped in its way. Stray electric currents which it would induce in a man’s body would instantly burn him up. Here, then, is it veritable “death ray”—not a fantastic dream, Dr. Thomas points out, but like radio power a sober scientific possibility. In time of war, this ray would prove a terrible and awe-inspiring weapon. Radio rays of overwhelming power turned upon an enemy army would cause it to disappear in smoke. Along the radio beam might course powerful electric currents to complete the destruction.

BUT in its peacetime uses it would be of greatest service to man. High towers could be used to keep the deadly beam where it could do no harm as it transmitted vast quantities of power across the earth. At night a bluish glow would surround the transmitting tower from leakage of the high-tension current, and perhaps even the beam would glow like a searchlight piercing faint mist.

Smaller beams, less dangerous to man, might distribute the power at the receiving station. This would correspond roughly to the present system of using transformers to change the dangerous high-tension electric current used in wired power transmission into low pressure current safe for home use.

Into your home, perhaps straight through the wall, the ray would enter, while the “half-wave receiver” would absorb power to light your lamps—not ordinary lamps, but a special type of electric light built like a radio vacuum tube—and run your washing machine and electric toaster.

Can it be done? The “ifs” are merely matters of figures now. Scientists have taken away the mystery that cloaks radio power, and have shown how it is to be attained. Each by his own method, they are drawing nearer and nearer to its useful realization. With all the resources of great laboratories at their command, they are working out the last practical details. Any day, now, they may announce to a waiting world that at last the goal has been achieved.

Dr Phillip ThomasCourtesy of New York Electrical Society

Wireless light and power already have been achieved in the laboratory. Here Dr. Phillips Thomas, research engineer of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, is using radio impulse from the vacuum tube at left to light a small electric lamp attached to a copper “aerial” rod

P2-PowerAir1How radio eventually may supply our homes and industries with light, heat and power. Our artist pictures here his conception of a wonderful power transmission system of the future, based on present laboratory experiments. High power beams of short radio waves, projected for long distances by means of huge reflectors, would be tapped by receiving apparatus, much as we now tap broadcast radio programs.

P3-TeslaTow1The famous power tower at Shoreham, Long island designed by Nikola Tesla to transmit thousands of horsepower through the earth. It was dismantled at the outbreak of the European war. The inventor now plans to construct a similar tower at Niagara Falls.


Dr Harvey C RentschlerCourtesy New York Electrical Society

A remarkable concentration of radio power. Dr. Harvey C. Rentschler, Westinghouse research engineer, demonstrates his new type of “radio furnace” which melts metals in a vacuum. Powerful radio waves from the electric coil above Doctor Rentschler’s hand penetrate the adjacent vacuum tube and generate a terrific current in the metal within.

* END *

Here are the original pages.






The Democracy of Battery Charging

May 17, 2015

by Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2015

(This is still in a preliminary stage of writing for a chapter in my next Volume, please excuse any errors)

I originally chose to call it “The Battery Charging Switching Method (BCSM)”, but due to a clear reasoning I renamed it. Each battery in turn is used to power the load and all the differences between batteries are constantly harmonized and balanced while using the differences as outputs for creative applications. Now if we could only run a real government using these principals we really would have something happily called democracy, at the moment what they call democracy is a painted mask hiding the oligarchs who glean there riches from the public under the guise of true government. This is the same as using willing slaves to turn the cranks of generators to power the load of one single machine that return no excess power back to the prime movers energy stores, to help recharge them, just in case the prime movers decide to build up its own energy reserves and maybe divert any excess to improving efficiency and lower the cost of distribution, this is pure heresy to the pyramidal control structure.

I was fascinated by the announcement back in the 90’s of a Tesla Switch, I decided to investigate, I found no credible source for the name Tesla for this scheme anywhere, so I dismissed the title and looked at the circuit. First I noticed the whole scheme needed either a mechanical , rotary or electronic driving mechanism, so the switching had to use power to activate. Secondly I noticed the load connections had some problem with the simple fact that the use of polarized capacitors in a possible oscillating system, this was interesting as the load was connected to the negative rail on both capacitors. Ignoring these issues, I had to stretch my imagination to include differentials of polarizations on either side of the system might account for a charge pushing through the load. Yes I could see if you swapped the batteries from 12v single to 12v parallel you would develop a differential if either battery was not exactly equal in charge, this was the first inkling that this was not completely bogus.

I began analyzing this simple switching system and found this as my first breakdown.

Tesla Switch (Brandt)

It looks like the original switching scheme was meant to drive a load between two earth rails, as this is not a design that would be advantageous to the whole idea of recharging the batteries and drive a load, I would need to see if the charging battery idea is worthy of its implication as scheme of merit.

Here I have the switching idea of Benitiz, and I must say his understanding of this is worthy of his patent.

Benitiz Battery Charger

As you can witness, Benitiz’s idea that by a simply putting 2 batteries in series and 2 batteries in parallel is a way of increasing the voltage in the parallel set 12v with the higher 24v of the series set, where the amperage capability has increased with the parallel set and with the difference in potential increased in the series set while and the internal resistance has been reduced in parallel and increased in series. Let us break this down into different types of analogs:

Audio frequency of tubes

– The resonant frequency decreases when two pipes are in series, where air current flow capability is the same and decreases due to greater frictional surface area
– The resonant frequency stays the same when two pipes are in parallel, where air current flow capability increases with the resistance also reduced as the volume increases greater than the resistive surface area.

In this case, the parallel system will develop a greater differential and an increase of air current volume, which could be translated into an volume flow transducers, thus moving energy out of the system by a translational device.
The parallel system uses a longitudinal pressure wave where the volume increase in the direction of flow and there is also resistance against the body of the tube which has greater increases in the serial version and is due to the surface area in contact with the vibrating air.

Sound - Series Parallel

Pressure of water in tubes connected

– Pressure increases when two pipes are in series (elevation differential), where water current flow rate capability decreases and greater frictional surface area decreases the flow
– Pressure stays the same in parallel, where current flow capability increases

In this case, the parallel system will develop a smaller differential but an increase of water current volume, which could be translated into an volume flow transducers, thus moving energy out of the system by a translational device.
The parallel system uses a pressure bow where the volume increase in the direction of flow and there is also resistance against the body of the pipe which has greater increases in the serial version and is due to the greater surface area in contact with the water.

Water- Series Parallel
EMF of Batteries in Series and Parallel

Battery Circuits
Circuit 1 – Batteries in Series

The current Ig through the resistance R3 in circuit 1


V = I x R
I = V / R


V = EMF1 + EMF2 = I x R

When you have resistors in series you add the values together:


EMF1 + EMF2 = Ig x (R1 + R2 + R3)


Ig = (EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3)



R1 = 270 ohms
R2 = 230 ohms
R3 = 940 ohms
EMF1 = 12 volts
EMF2 = 3 volts


Ig = (12 + 3) / (270+230+940) = 15 / 1440 = 0.0104166 Amps



R1 = 2.7 ohms
R2 = 2.3 ohms
R3 = 9.4 ohms
EMF1 = 12 volts
EMF2 = 4 volts


Ig = (12 + 4) / (2.7+2.3+7.5) = 16 / 12.5 = 1.28 Amps

Circuit 1b – Batteries in Parallel , End Load

Using Kirchoff’s Loop Rule

Where all possible loops that are valid can circulate
Loop 1 = b -> a -> x < -c <- d (This Loop is incomplete)

This is an unusual combination, even though EMF11 will become in equilibrium with EMF12, the actual load is a bridge conductor. This mean this load will in fact function but of a very small current differential.

Example 1a:


R11 = 3 ohm
R12 = 3 ohm
R13 = 8 ohm
EMF11 = 12 volts
EMF12 = 11.75 volts

Ih = R11 / EMF11
= 3 / 12
= 0.25

Ij = R12 / EMF12
= 3 / 11.75
= 0.255319

Thus the current in the load is

Iload = Ij – Ih
= 0.05319

by deduction we can also say

R13 = EMF13 / Iload


EMF13 = R 13 x Iload
= 8 x 0.05319
= 0.04255 volts

This easily shows Kirchoff ‘s loop rule must also include the loops that arrive from two sources that are not the same, allowing a current to flow due to the nature of unequal equipotentials. This means we must first show the currents of each half loop then by subtraction leaving the differential, which should also be divided by 2 because the current will share the remainder with both current sources.

This also means that an additional Law must be applied to resolve this type of differential loop.

The Third Law – Only implies the incomplete differential loops.

Ij – Ih – ( EMF13/R13 ) = 0                Eq0

Circuit 2 – Batteries in Parallel

Using Kirchoff’s Loop Rule

Where all possible loops that are valid can circulate

Loop 1 = a -> d -> e -> f then back to a (This Loop is invalid)
Loop 2 = a -> b -> c -> d then back to a
Loop 3 = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f then back to a

The First Law

Ic – Ib – Ia = 0                                  Eq1

The Second Law

This implies to Loop2

EMF4 – ( R6 x Ic) – (R5 x Ib) = 0        Eq2

This implies to Loop3

EMF3 – ( R4 x Ia) – (R6 x Ic) = 0         Eq3

and rearranging Eq2

EMF4 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R5 x Ib) = EMF5
EMF4 – ( R5 x Ib) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF6
EMF4 = (R5 x Ib) + (R6 x Ic)

and rearranging Eq3

EMF3 – ( R4 x Ia) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF7
EMF3 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R4 x Ia) = EMF8
EMF3 = ( R4 x Ia) + (R6 x Ic)

Also rearranging Eq1

Ic = Ia + Ib

There are 2 current branches


Ia = EMF3 – EMF6 / R4


Ib = EMF4 – EMF6 / R4


Ic = (EMF3 – EMF6 / R4) + (EMF4 – EMF6) / R5)

To conclude


R5 = R4




Ic = (2 x EMF3 – 2 x EMF6) / R4


Ic * R4 = 2 x EMF3 – 2 x EMF6
R4 = (2 x EMF3 – 2 x EMF6) / Ic


R4 = ((2 x EMF3)/ Ic) – (2 x R6)
(2 x EMF3)/Ic = R4 + 2 x R6
2 x EMF3 = Ic x (R4 + 2 x R6)
Ic = 2 x EMF3 / (R4 + 2 x R6)


Ic = 2 x EMF3 / (R4 + 2 x R6)

Also for the invalid loop1 we must use Eq1 to see what differential circulates between these 2 EMF’s, you will have to include another load R45 between R4 and R5 at e and d.

If using the 3rd law

Ia – Ib – ( EMF34/R45 ) = 0               Eq0


Iload = Ia – Ib


EMF34 = R45 x Iload

This can now be treated as an additional EMF depending on the direction of current, eg if Ia>Ib or Ib>Ia.


EMF3 = 12 V
EMF4 = 9 V
R4 = 100 ohms
R5 = 50 ohms
R6 = 2500 ohms
Ia = 0.0213579 amps
Ib = – 0.0173684 amps
Ic = Ia + Ib = 0.0394737 amps             Eq1
EMF4 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R5 x Ib) = EMF5
9 – (2500 x Ic) = 50 x Ib

rearrange then
Ib = (9 – (2500 x Ic)) / 50

Also if
EMF4 = (R5 x Ib) + (R6 x Ic)
= (50 x Ib) + (2500 x Ic)
= 9 volts

EMF4 – ( R5 x Ib) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF6
9 – (50 x Ib) = 2500 x Ic

Rearrange then
Ic = (9 – (50 x Ib)) / 2500
then by Eq1
Ia + Ib = (9 – (50 x Ib)) / 2500
Rearrange then
Ia = (9 – (50 x Ib)) / 2500) – Ib

and rearranging Eq3

EMF3 – ( R4 x Ia) = (R6 x Ic) = EMF7
12 – (100 x Ia) = 2500 x Ic

Rearrange then
Ic = (12 – (100 x Ia)) / 2500
then by Eq1
Ia + Ib = (12 – (100 x Ia)) / 2500
Rearrange then
Ib = (12 – (100 x Ia)) / 2500) – Ia

EMF3 – ( R6 x Ic) = (R4 x Ia) = EMF8
12 – (2500 x Ic) = 100 x Ia

Rearrange then

Ia = (12 – (2500 x Ic)) / 100
then by Eq1
Ic – Ib = (12 – (2500 x Ic)) / 100
Rearrange then
Ib = -1 x ((12 – (2500 x Ic)) / 100) – Ic)

Also if
EMF3 = ( R4 x Ia) + (R6 x Ic)
= (100 x Ia) +(2500 x Ic)
= 12 volts

The power dissipated by R3 for circuit 1


EMF1 = 12 V
EMF2 = 12 V
R1 = 100 ohms
R2 = 50 ohms
R3 = 2500 ohms

and if Power is Pa

Pa = I^2 x R

and I is

Ia = (EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3)
= 0.0090566


Pa = [(EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3)]^2 x R3

The power dissipated of R3 using values

Pa = [(EMF1 + EMF2) / (R1 + R2 + R3]^2 x R2
= [( 12 + 12 ) / (100 + 50 + 2500)]^2 * 2500
= [24 / 2650]^2 * 2500
= 0.205


EMF1 = 12 V
EMF2 = 12 V
R1 = 100 ohms
R2 = 100 ohms
R3 = 200 ohms
R4 = 200 ohms
R5 = 200 ohms
R6 = 200 ohms

For what ratio of R1 and R2 would power dissipated by the resistor of resistance R2 be the same for circuit A and circuit B?

As long as the voltage and current are the same, the power will be the same if the resistors are equal. So the answer is, so long as:


EMF1 = EMF2 = EMF3 = EMF4


(R1 + R2) / R3 = 1                                                       Eq4
[(R4 x R5)/( R4 + R5)]/ R6 = 1                                      Eq5

Circuit 3 – Batteries in Series and Parallel

Using Kirchoff’s Loop Rule

Where all possible loops that are valid and can circulate

Loop 1 = a -> d -> e -> f then back to a
Loop 2 = a -> b -> c -> d then back to a
Loop 3 = a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f then back to a

The First Law

Id – Ie – If = 0                                                         Eq6 4

The Second Law

This implies to Loop1

EMF9 – EMF10 – ( R8 x Ie) – (R7 x Id) = 0                 Eq7 5

This implies to Loop2

EMF10 – ( R9 x If) – (R8 x Ie) = 0                              Eq8 6

This implies to Loop3

EMF9 – ( R9 x If) – (R7 x Id) = 0                                Eq9 7

When 2 batteries are put in parallel they will try to equalize the total charge that is available, thus a 11v connected to a 13v theoretically should equalize to 12v. This is the technology of of Ron Brant and others, where battery switching technology is not a mysterious or esoteric topic in engineering as it may seem, but due its uncommon applications it has developed in to a wild “free energy from the vacuum” cult following. This has happened over a 30 year period, saying this, it is still an interesting and unexplored territory and should be given some credence to evaluate possible parametric additions to the flow rate between these cells. This is where Kirchoffs invalid current loops become valid which now can be translated to include another branch that can be added from an outside environmental circuit, regardless if the basic layout are completely valid, thus giving a perfectly reasonable validation for external energy coupling. The anomalous readings that the researchers sometimes encounters when making experimental circuits can easily be included as differential current movements, this sometimes happens in some simple circuits when the environment has EMF leakage currents that circulate from power systems, through bad earths or inductive couplings when metal components contain eddy currents.
So when Tesla made his simple and accurate discovery that “all energy is received from the external environment”, it becomes validated once again. Thanks for reading regards Arto.

Resonant LC Parameter Chart

March 20, 2014

Having worked on many types of resonant systems over the years(electrical, mechanical, acoustic), this chart is very useful to get a intuitive grasp on the some of the parameters and values needed for a basic LC (inductor, capacitor) electrical resonant system. It covers 100 Mhz to 1 Khz, I hope you find it useful, regards Arto.

I hope you consider, purchasing a copy of my book, so I can continue to create content like the one above, Regards Arto

Here is the press release and interview with Adam Bull.

Tesla Newspaper Articles II

March 17, 2014

Here is another set of Tesla articles, from the years 1901 to 1907, again it is from Australia. Thanks to the National Archives in Canberra, regards Arto.


The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate, (Parramatta, NSW) Wednesday 27, February 1901


The system by which Mr. Nikola Tesla hopes to be able to signal Mars. Mr. Tesla recently said to an interviewer : — ” It seems to me that only men absolutely stricken with blindness can hold that the earth is the sole planet inhabited by intelligent beings. I have perfected my transmitting apparatus to the extent that I can understand to construct a machine which, without a doubt will be fully competent to convey sufficient energy to Mars to operate delicate appliances such as are used here. Since we ourselves are so far advanced, is it unreasonable to believe in the possibility that of the 20 or 25 planets of the solar system, one, if  not more, may be ahead of us in evolution ? The time has arrived for the electrician to join the astronomer in the explanation of neighbouring worlds.

Fourth planet from sun (140 millions of miles distant). Diameter — little more than half the earth’s Atmosphere like ours. The black signifies water; the white, land. Note the wonderful canal system, proving that the Martians are highly civilised.


Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald & General Advertiser Thursday 18 July 1901


In a recent interview, Mr. Tesla gives the following description of some of his recent achievements :-“With a small engine, capable of pressing a piston backward and forward with a force of but two pounds, I have set an entire block of modern buildings, by careful attunement, into such a swaying that the people rushed out affrighted. With an impressed force of a fraction of a pound I caused steel rings of several square inches cross-section, capable of supporting several   hundred tons, to vibrate and form loops like thin piano wires, until they finally broke.”


The World’s News (Sydney, NSW) Saturday, 24 June, 1905

Tesla Patents.

“A” broad field has apparently opened to tho electrical world   with the expiration, of the three patents granted Nikola Tesla in 1888, covering fundamentally the rotary field type of electric motor. But the actual situation developed by the expiration of these patents is slightly obscured by the patent granted Tesla on the split phase motor in 1890, which still remains in force. The electro-magnetic rotating field was discovered by Professor Galileo Ferraris, of Italy, and on a broad application of the rotating field to alternating current motors the first Tesla patents were issued.   Courts have held broadly, in a number of decisions in litigation concerning these three patents, that they cover the system of producing power from an electric motor by means of the rotary field. Hence it seems reasonable to assume the principle of the rotary field is released to the world of invention by their expiration, in audition, in so far as the split phase patents are concerned, the   invention of this principle by Tesla was denied   by two Courts, one of these decisions being sustained on appeal, and the other reversed. But it remains to be decided by those interested to what extent the line of subsidiary patents issued during the life of the fundamental patents   may narrow the field opened by the termination of the latter.


The Daily News (Perth, WA) Saturday 19 October 1907

Nikola Tesla, the American scientist, says coal is a “back number,” and that we shall soon be driving machinery, running railway trains, sailing steamships, cooking food, and lighting streets and houses by power obtained direct from the sun.

Tesla Coil Fun

September 30, 2011

I am currently designing and building a portable Tesla coil, so I put it in my carry-bag on my motorbike,  here are some pics. (more info to follow, soon)

Primary design

Tesla Coil Mount

Top View of base

Midi Size Tesla Coil